The success of bank mergers revisited. An assessment based on a matching strategy
The question of whether or not mergers and acquisitions have helped to enhance banks' efficiency and profitability has not yet been conclusively resolved in the literature. We argue that this is partly due to severe methodological problems involved. In this study we analyze the effect of German bank mergers from the period 1995-2000 on the banks' profitability and cost efficiency. We suggest a new matching strategy to control for the selection effects arising from the fact that pre-dominantly under-performing banks engage in mergers. Our results indicate a neutral effect of mergers on profitability and cost efficiency. Comparing our results with those obtained from a naive performance comparison of merging and non-merging banks indicates a severe negative selection bias with regard to the latter.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002.
"Propensity Score-Matching Methods For Nonexperimental Causal Studies,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 151-161, February.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 1998. "Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-experimental Causal Studies," NBER Working Papers 6829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Vennet, Rudi Vander, 1996. "The effect of mergers and acquisitions on the efficiency and profitability of EC credit institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1531-1558, November.
- David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 1995.
"Why do banks disappear? The determinants of U.S. bank failures and acquisitions,"
1995-013, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- David C. Wheelock & Paul W. Wilson, 2000. "Why do Banks Disappear? The Determinants of U.S. Bank Failures and Acquisitions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(1), pages 127-138, February.
- Peristiani, Stavros, 1997.
"Do Mergers Improve the X-Efficiency and Scale Efficiency of U.S. Banks? Evidence from the 1980s,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 326-37, August.
- Stavros Peristiani, 1996. "Do mergers improve the x-efficiency and scale efficiency of U.S. banks?: Evidence from the 1980s," Research Paper 9623, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Rhoades, Stephen A., 1998. "The efficiency effects of bank mergers: An overview of case studies of nine mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 273-291, March.
- Focarelli, Dario & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2002. "Why Do Banks Merge?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(4), pages 1047-66, November.
- Worthington, Andrew C., 2004. "Determinants of merger and acquisition activity in Australian cooperative deposit-taking institutions," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 47-57, January.
- Lang, Gunter & Welzel, Peter, 1999.
"Mergers among German Cooperative Banks: A Panel-Based Stochastic Frontier Analysis,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 273-86, December.
- Günter Lang, Peter Welzel, 1999. "Mergers Among German Cooperative Banks. A Panel-based Stochastic Frontier Analysis," Working Paper Series B 1999-03, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultïät.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Ruback, Richard S., 1983. "The market for corporate control : The scientific evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-4), pages 5-50, April.
- Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992. "Megamergers in banking and the use of cost efficiency as an antitrust defense," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 203, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Houston, Joel F. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 1994. "The overall gains from large bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1155-1176, December.
- Resti, Andrea, 1998. "Regulation Can Foster Mergers, Can Mergers Foster Efficiency? The Italian Case," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 157-169, March.
- Jalal D. Akhavein & Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1996.
"The Effects of Megamergers on Efficiency and Prices: Evidence from a Bank Profit Function,"
Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers
96-03, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Jalal D. Akhavein & Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "The effects of megamergers on efficiency and prices: evidence from a bank profit function," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-9, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Hadlock, Charles & Houston, Joel & Ryngaert, Michael, 1999. "The role of managerial incentives in bank acquisitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 221-249, February.
- Avkiran, Necmi Kemal, 1999. "The evidence on efficiency gains: The role of mergers and the benefits to the public," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 991-1013, July.
- Koetter, Michael & Bos, Jaap W. B. & Heid, Frank & Kool, Clemens J. M. & Kolari, James W. & Porath, Daniel, 2005.
"Accounting for distress in bank mergers,"
Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies
2005,09, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Bliss, Richard T. & Rosen, Richard J., 2001. "CEO compensation and bank mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 107-138, July.
- Cuesta, Rafael A. & Orea, Luis, 2002. "Mergers and technical efficiency in Spanish savings banks: A stochastic distance function approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(12), pages 2231-2247.
- Michael Koetter, 2008. "An Assessment of Bank Merger Success in Germany," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 9, pages 232-264, 05.
- Koetter, Michael, 2005.
"Evaluating the German bank merger wave,"
Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies
2005,12, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Houston, Joel F. & James, Christopher M. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 2001. "Where do merger gains come from? Bank mergers from the perspective of insiders and outsiders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 285-331, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:empfin:v:18:y:2011:i:1:p:117-135. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.