Gender inequality in multidimensional welfare deprivation in west Africa : the case of Burkina Faso and Togo
The importance of gender equality is reflected not only in the Millennium Development Goals, but also in the World Bank's Gender Action Plan launched in 2007 as well as in other treaties and actions undertaken at regional and international levels. Unlike other work on gender and poverty, which is mostly based on monetary measurement, the present study makes use of a counting approach to examine gender issues in Burkina Faso and Togo using household surveys. Focusing on six dimensions (housing, basic utilities, assets, education, employment, and access to credit) largely recognized as Millennium Development Goal targets, the main findings of the study indicate that overall individuals are the most deprived in education in Burkina Faso, while the reverse situation is true in Togo. Gender inequality is observed in all dimensions since women always seem to be more deprived than men. The situation is also marked by regional disparities. Moreover, the assessment of dimensional contributions shows different patterns for each country. While employment proves to be the main contributor of gender inequality in Burkina Faso, three dimensions (assets, access to credit, and employment) account together for most of the total contribution to gender inequality in Togo. There is also a positive correlation between multidimensional deprivation and women's age in Burkina Faso, whereas both measures seem to be uncorrelated in Togo.
|Date of creation:||01 Jun 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bastos, Amélia & Casaca, Sara F. & Nunes, Francisco & Pereirinha, José, 2009. "Women and poverty: A gender-sensitive approach," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 764-778, October.
- Martin Ravallion, 2012.
"Mashup Indices of Development,"
World Bank Research Observer,
World Bank Group, vol. 27(1), pages 1-32, February.
- Diana Fletschner, 2008. "Women's Access to Credit: Does It Matter for Household Efficiency?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(3), pages 669-683.
- Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James, 2011.
"Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 476-487, August.
- Kristin Komives & Vivien Foster & Jonathan Halpern & Quentin Wodon & Roohi Abdullah, 2008.
"Water, Electricity, and the Poor : Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?,"
World Bank Other Operational Studies
11745, The World Bank.
- Kristin Komives & Vivien Foster & Jonathan Halpern & Quentin Wodon, 2005. "Water, Electricity, and the Poor : Who Benefits from Utility Subsidies?," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6361, April.
- Zaki Wahhaj & Thi Minh-Phuong Ngo, 2010.
"Microfinance and Gender Empowerment,"
Economics Series Working Papers
CSAE WPS/2010-34, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Thi Minh-Phuong Ngo & Zaki Wahhaj, 2010. "Microfinance and Gender Empowerment," CSAE Working Paper Series 2010-34, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Ngo, Thi Minh-Phuong & Wahhaj, Zaki, 2008. "Microfinance and Gender Empowerment," MPRA Paper 11293, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 1999. "Le différentiel spatial de pauvreté au Burkina Faso : " capabilities " versus dépenses," Documents de travail 36, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
- Matias Cattaneo & Sebastian Galiani & Paul Gertler & Sebastian Martinez & Rocio Titiunik, 2008.
"Housing, Health and Happiness,"
CEDLAS, Working Papers
0074, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
- Alkire, Sabina & Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela & Peterman, Amber & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Seymour, Greg & Vaz, Ana, 2012. "The Womenâ€™s Empowerment in Agriculture Index:," IFPRI discussion papers 1240, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Martin Ravallion, 2011.
"On multidimensional indices of poverty,"
Journal of Economic Inequality,
Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 235-248, June.
- Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Haddad, Lawrence & Pena, Christine, 2001. "Are women overrepresented among the poor? An analysis of poverty in 10 developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 225-269, October.
- Becchetti, Leonardo & Conzo, Pierluigi, 2010.
"Credit access and life satisfaction: evaluating the non monetary effects of micro finance,"
AICCON Working Papers
73-2010, Associazione Italiana per la Cultura della Cooperazione e del Non Profit.
- Leonardo Becchetti & Pierluigi Conzo, 2013. "Credit access and life satisfaction: evaluating the nonmonetary effects of micro finance," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(9), pages 1201-1217, March.
- David E. Sahn & David Stifel, 2003. "Exploring Alternative Measures of Welfare in the Absence of Expenditure Data," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 49(4), pages 463-489, December.
- Sebastian Levine & James Muwonge & Yele Maweki Batana, 2011.
"A Robust Multi-Dimensional Poverty Profile for Uganda,"
Working Papers PMMA
- Sebastian Levine & James Muwonge & Yélé Maweki Batana, 2014. "A Robust Multi-dimensional Poverty Profile for Uganda," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(4), pages 369-390, November.
- Sebastian Levine, James Muwonge and Yele Maweki Batana, 2012. "A Robust Multidimensional Poverty Profile for Uganda," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp055, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Booysen, Frikkie & van der Berg, Servaas & Burger, Ronelle & Maltitz, Michael von & Rand, Gideon du, 2008. "Using an Asset Index to Assess Trends in Poverty in Seven Sub-Saharan African Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1113-1130, June.
- Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
- Diego Zavaleta, 2007. "The Ability to Go about without Shame: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators of Shame and Humiliation," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp003, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Marek Hudon, 2007.
"Should Access to Credit be a Right ?,"
Working Papers CEB
07-008.RS, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Andrea Brandolini & Silvia Magri & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2010. "Asset-based measurement of poverty," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(2), pages 267-284.
- Sabina Alkire, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Amber Peterman, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Greg Seymour and Ana Vaz, 2013.
"The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index,"
OPHI Working Papers
ophiwp058, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Bourguignon, F. & Chakravarty, S.R., 1998.
"The Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty,"
DELTA Working Papers
98-12, DELTA (Ecole normale supérieure).
- Yélé Batana, 2013. "Multidimensional Measurement of Poverty Among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 112(2), pages 337-362, June.
- Diagne, Aliou & Zeller, Manfred, 2001. "Access to credit and its impact on welfare in Malawi:," Research reports 116, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Maria Ana Lugo, 2007. "Employment: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(4), pages 361-378.
- Duclos, Jean-Yves & Sahn, David & Younger, Stephen D., 2001.
"Robust Multidimensional Poverty Comparisons,"
Cahiers de recherche
0115, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
- Carolina Navarro & Luis Ayala, 2008. "Multidimensional housing deprivation indices with application to Spain," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(5), pages 597-611.
- David Lam & Suzanne Duryea, 1999. "Effects of Schooling on Fertility, Labor Supply, and Investments in Children, with Evidence from Brazil," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(1), pages 160-192.
- Robert M. Buckley & Jerry Kalarickal, 2006. "Thirty Years of World Bank Shelter Lending : What Have We Learned?," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7061, April.
- UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project, 1999. "Women in Transition," Papers remore99/1, Regional Monitoring Report.
- Josefa S Francisco, 2007. "Gender Inequality, Poverty and Human Development in South East Asia," Development, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 50(2), pages 103-114, June.
- Ezzrar, Abdeljaouad & Verme , Paolo, 2012. "A multiple correspondence analysis approach to the measurement of multidimensional poverty in Morocco, 2001-2007," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6087, The World Bank.
- Luis Ayala & José M. Labeaga & Carolina Navarro, .
"housing deprivation and health status: evidence from Spain?,"
- Carolina Navarro & Luis Ayala & José Labeaga, 2010. "Housing deprivation and health status: evidence from Spain," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 555-582, June.
- Francisco Ferreira, 2011. "Poverty is multidimensional. But what are we going to do about it?," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 493-495, September.
- Andrea Brandolini & Silvia Magri & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2010. "Asset-based measurement of poverty," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 755, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Krishnakumar, Jaya & Ballon, Paola, 2008. "Estimating Basic Capabilities: A Structural Equation Model Applied to Bolivia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 992-1010, June.
- E. Maasoumi & G. Yalonetzky, 2013. "Introduction to Robustness in Multidimensional Wellbeing Analysis," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(1), pages 1-6, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6522. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.