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The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index

  • Alkire, Sabina
  • Meinzen-Dick, Ruth
  • Peterman, Amber
  • Quisumbing, Agnes
  • Seymour, Greg
  • Vaz, Ana

The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) measures the empowerment, agency, and inclusion of women in the agricultural sector and comprises two subindexes. The first assesses empowerment of women in five domains, including (1) decisions about agricultural production, (2) access to and decisionmaking power about productive resources, (3) control of use of income, (4) leadership in the community, and (5) time allocation. The second subindex measures the percentage of women whose achievements are at least as high as men in their households and, for women lacking parity, the relative empowerment gap with respect to the male in their household. This article documents the development of the WEAI and presents pilot findings from Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Uganda.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal World Development.

Volume (Year): 52 (2013)
Issue (Month): C ()
Pages: 71-91

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Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:52:y:2013:i:c:p:71-91
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev

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  1. Fafchamps, Marcel & Quisumbing, Agnes R., 2001. "Control and ownership of assets within rural Ethiopian households," FCND discussion papers 120, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  2. Sabina Alkire, 2005. "Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 74(1), pages 217-260, October.
  3. Bardasi, Elena & Wodon, Quentin, 2006. "Measuring Time Poverty and Analyzing Its Determinants: Concepts and Application to Guinea," MPRA Paper 11082, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Solava Ibrahim & Sabina Alkire, 2007. "Agency and Empowerment: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(4), pages 379-403.
  5. Alderman, Harold, et al, 1995. "Unitary versus Collective Models of the Household: Is It Time to Shift the Burden of Proof?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 1-19, February.
  6. Sabina Alkire & James Foster & Maria Santos, 2011. "Where did identification go?," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 501-505, September.
  7. Smith, Lisa C. & Ramakrishnan, Usha & Ndiaye, Aida & Haddad, Lawrence James & Martorell, Reynaldo, 2003. "The importance of women's status for child nutrition in developing countries:," Research reports 131, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  8. James Foster & Sabina Alkire, 2011. "Understandings and Misunderstandings of Multidimensional Poverty Measurement," Working Papers 2011-18, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
  9. Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
  10. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-66, May.
  11. David Lawson, 2007. "A Gendered Analysis of `Time Poverty` - The Importance of Infrastructure," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-078, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  12. Agnes Quisumbing & Neha Kumar, 2011. "Does social capital build women's assets? The long-term impacts of group-based and individual dissemination of agricultural technology in Bangladesh," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 220-242.
  13. Beaman, Lori & Dillon, Andrew, 2012. "Do household definitions matter in survey design? Results from a randomized survey experiment in Mali," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(1), pages 124-135.
  14. Buvinic, Mayra & Gupta, Geeta Rao, 1997. "Female-Headed Households and Female-Maintained Families: Are They Worth Targeting to Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 259-80, January.
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  16. Agarwal, Bina, 2001. "Participatory Exclusions, Community Forestry, and Gender: An Analysis for South Asia and a Conceptual Framework," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1623-1648, October.
  17. Deepa Narayan, 2002. "Empowerment and Poverty Reduction : A Sourcebook," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 15239.
  18. Carmen Diana Deere & Gina E. Alvarado & Jennifer Twyman, 2012. "Gender Inequality in Asset Ownership in Latin America: Female Owners vs Household Heads," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 43(2), pages 505-530, 03.
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  21. Ruth Alsop & Mette Bertelsen & Jeremy Holland, 2006. "Empowerment in Practice : From Analysis to Implementation," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6980.
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  24. Deepa Narayan & Lant Pritchett & Soumya Kapoor, 2009. "Moving Out of Poverty : Volume 2. Success from the Bottom Up," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 11838.
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