Le différentiel spatial de pauvreté au Burkina Faso : " capabilities " versus dépenses
The spatial differential of poverty in Burkina Faso is apprehended using a micro-multidimensional approach based on three basic needs - housing, health and education-, supposed to express the “capabilities” of households. Two analytical aspects are highlighted. Firstly, the extent of poverty in terms of basic needs is highest in the rural sector, compared to the urban zones, in particular in the area of North and, to a lesser extent, in those of the South & South_West, Center_North and Center_South. In this respect, if deficits of instruction of the head of household explain approximately half of national poverty, they vary appreciably according to couples “area_attribute”. Thus, in the urban zones, it is primarily the shortage of instruction of the head of household which is the essential component of the multidimensional index. However, in rural zones, the situation is contrasted. In addition, the approach in terms of “capabilities” underlines significant differences according to the sex and the labour statute of the head of household, and suggests actions differentiated as regards fight against poverty, modulated according to zones, as well with regard to the access to the private goods as with the collective services. Secondly, a proximity of situation is observed between the monetary structure of regional poverty and its non-monetary counterpart. On the one hand, the spatial coherence observed between the relative levels of the ratios of poverty and the multidimensional indices confers much similarity between the regional profiles of monetary poverty and poverty in terms of “capabilities”. In addition, the econometric estimates show that, for the various basic needs taken separately, more the gaps compared to the thresholds of subsistence are important, more the ratio and the depth of monetary poverty are high. Moreover, the predicted values of the indicators of monetary poverty by the “capabilities” alone are rather close to the values observed. These conclusions probably confirm the character more complementary than substitutable of the two approaches, and tends to strengthen the interest of the multidimensional investigations, in particular compared to the effectiveness of the anti-poverty policies. (Full text in French)
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