Les différences spatiales de pauvreté en Mauritanie : un test de dominance
Based on two national household surveys, carried out in 1990 and 1995_96, a test of stochastic dominance allows to apprehend spacial poverty differences in Mauritania. The results show a relative robustness as for the classification of the social states in terms of poverty of three principal groups. By order descending of poverty, the latter are:(i) the rural sector of the River and the South & South_East;(ii) urban zones of the River and the South & South_East, as well as the rural Center_North; (iii) Nouakchott and cities of Center_North. This conclusion was obtained with a poverty ligne of 40 402 ouguiyas per capita and per annum - determined by the approach of the cost of the basic needs -, and is independent of the taking into account of a scale factor of the households different from the unit. In addition, the regression of rural and urban poverty in Mauritania between 1990 and 1996 shows that, for additive measurements, it is stronger in relative terms in the urban sector, compared to the rural sector, whereas the reverse prevails in absolute terms. Moreover, the regional structure of poverty is only changed in rural sector, the area of the River being impoverished, relative at the other rural zones. On the other hand, the relative importance of poverty in the secondary cities is always highest compared to Nouakchott. Such results would tend to show the absence of antagonism between the policies of adjustment and the reduction of poverty and, at the same time, the advisability of focusing the actions in direction of the rural sector in order to fight the latter most effectively. (Full text in French)
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