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A gendered assessment of the brain drain

  • Docquier, Frederic
  • Lowell, B. Lindsay
  • Marfouk, Abdeslam

This paper updates and extends the Docquier-Marfouk data set on inter-national migration by educational attainment. The authors use new sources, homogenize definitions of what a migrant is, and compute gender-disaggregated indicators of the brain drain. Emigration stocks and rates are provided by level of schooling and gender for 195 source countries in 1990 and 2000. The data set can be used to capture the recent trend in women's skilled migration and to analyze its causes and consequences for developing countries. The .findings show that women represent an increasing share of the OECD immigration stock and exhibit relatively higher rates of brain drain than men. The gender gap in skilled migration is strongly correlated with the gender gap in educational attainment at origin. Equating women's and men's access to education would probably reduce gender differences in the brain drain.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4613.

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Date of creation: 01 May 2008
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4613
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  1. Michel Beine & Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2002. "Brain Drain and LDCs' Growth: Winners and Losers," Working Papers 2002-08, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
  2. Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., 2003. "What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  3. Coulombe Serge & Tremblay Jean-François, 2006. "Literacy and Growth," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(2), pages 1-34, August.
  4. Adams, Richard H. Jr., 2003. "International migration, remittances, and the brain drain ; a study of 24 labor exporting countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3069, The World Bank.
  5. Michel Beine & Frédéric Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2007. "Measuring international skilled migration: a new database controlling for age of entry," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/10411, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  6. Beata S. Javorcik & Çaglar Özden & Mariana Spatareanu & Cristina Neagu, 2006. "Migrant Networks and Foreign Direct Investment," Working Papers Rutgers University, Newark 2006-003, Department of Economics, Rutgers University, Newark.
  7. Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 2000. "International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications," CID Working Papers 42, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
  8. Blackden, Mark & Canagarajah, Sudharshan & Klasen, Stephan & Lawson, David, 2006. "Gender and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Issues and Evidence," Working Paper Series RP2006/37, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  9. Abdeslam Marfouk, 2007. "Brain Drain in Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 21(2), pages 193-218, June.
  10. Kugler, Maurice & Rapoport, Hillel, 2007. "International labor and capital flows: Complements or substitutes?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 155-162, February.
  11. Frederic, DOCQUIER & Hillel, RAPOPORT, 2007. "Silled migration : the perspectives of developing countries," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2007017, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  12. Checchi, Daniele & De Simone, Gianfranco & Faini, Riccardo, 2007. "Skilled Migration, FDI and Human Capital Investment," IZA Discussion Papers 2795, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Daniel Cohen & Marcelo Soto, 2001. "Growth and Human Capital: Good Data, Good Results," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 179, OECD Publishing.
  14. Angel de la Fuente & Rafael Donénech, 2000. "Human Capital in Growth Regressions: How much Difference Does Data Quality Make?," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 262, OECD Publishing.
  15. William Carrington & Enrica Detragiache, 1998. "How Big is the Brain Drain?," IMF Working Papers 98/102, International Monetary Fund.
  16. Robert Haveman & Barbara Wolfe, 1995. "The Determinants of Children's Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(4), pages 1829-1878, December.
  17. de la Fuente, Angel & Doménech, Rafael, 2002. "Human Capital in Growth Regressions: How Much Difference Does Data Quality Make? An Update and Further Results," CEPR Discussion Papers 3587, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  18. Michael A. Clemens & Gunilla Pettersson, 2006. "A New Database of Health Professional Emigration from Africa," Working Papers 95, Center for Global Development.
  19. Stephen Knowles & Paula K. Lorgelly, 2002. "Are educational gender gaps a brake on economic development? Some cross-country empirical evidence," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(1), pages 118-149, January.
  20. Andrew R. Morrison & Maurice Schiff & Mirja Sjöblom, 2007. "The International Migration of Women," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6804, December.
  21. Docquier, Frederic & Marfouk, Abdeslam, 2004. "Measuring the international mobility of skilled workers (1990-2000) : release 1.0," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3381, The World Bank.
  22. Dumont, Jean-Christophe & Martin, John P. & Spielvogel, Gilles, 2007. "Women on the Move: The Neglected Gender Dimension of the Brain Drain," IZA Discussion Papers 2920, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  23. Michel Beine & Frederic Docquier & Hillel Rapoport, 2006. "Measuring International Skilled Migration: New Estimates Controlling for Age of Entry," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0613, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  24. Marc Debuisson & Frédéric Docquier & Abdul Ghafar Noury & Madeleine Nantcho, 2004. "Immigration and aging in the Belgian régions," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 47(1), pages 139-157.
  25. Simon Commander & Mari Kangasniemi & L. Alan Winters, 2004. "The brain drain: a review of theory and facts," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 47(1), pages 29-44.
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