Trade reforms, farm productivity, and poverty in Bangladesh
This paper analyzes the distributional impacts of trade reforms in rural areas of Bangladesh. The liberalization of trade in irrigation equipment and fertilizer markets during the early 1990s has led to structural changes in the agricultural sector and a significant increase in rice productivity. A resulting increase in output has been associated with a decline in producer and consumer rice prices of approximately 25 percent. Using a combination of ex-post and ex-ante approaches, the authors investigate the implications of the changes in rice productivity and prices for the welfare of households. They find that the net effects of increased rice productivity and lower rice prices have benefited the poor. Regardless of the particular category analyzed, the poorest households emerged as being particularly positively affected by reforms in the 1990s. This mainly reflects the fact that they are predominantly net rice buyers in both urban and rural markets. In contrast, large net sellers of rice, among the better-off households in the rural areas, were the main losers. Since net buyers in rural areas tend to be poorer than net sellers, trade liberalization has benefited the poor. Although the authors are not able to test empirically what has happened to the welfare level of agricultural wage earners, secondary evidence suggests that they have gained from trade liberalization.
|Date of creation:||01 Aug 2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Datt, Gaurav & Ravallion, Martin, 1998.
"Farm productivity and rural poverty in India,"
FCND discussion papers
42, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Benjamin, Dwayne & Deaton, Angus, 1993. "Household Welfare and the Pricing of Cocoa and Coffee in Cote d'Ivoire: Lessons from the Living Standards Surveys," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 7(3), pages 293-318, September.
- Finan, Frederico & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Janvry, Alain, 2002.
"Measuring the poverty reduction potential of land in rural Mexico,"
CUDARE Working Paper Series
983, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy.
- Finan, Frederico & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Janvry, Alain, 2005. "Measuring the poverty reduction potential of land in rural Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 27-51, June.
- Finan, Frederico & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Janvry, Alain, 2002. "Measuring the Poverty Reduction Potential of Land in Rural Mexico," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt6xg1q0dg, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Nicita, Alessandro, 2006. "Export led growth, pro-poor or not? Evidence from Madagascar's textile and apparel industry," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3841, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Shaohua Chen, 2001.
"Measuring pro-poor growth,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2666, The World Bank.
- Seshan, Ganesh, 2005. "The impact of trade liberalization on household welfare in vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3541, The World Bank.
- Minten, Bart & Barrett, Christopher B., 2008. "Agricultural Technology, Productivity, and Poverty in Madagascar," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 797-822, May.
- Dorosh, Paul A., 2001. "Trade Liberalization and National Food Security: Rice Trade between Bangladesh and India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 673-689, April.
- Porto, Guido G., 2005. "Estimating household responses to trade reforms : net consumers and net producers in rural Mexico," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3695, The World Bank.
- Edmonds, Eric V. & Pavcnik, Nina, 2006. "Trade liberalization and the allocation of labor between households and markets in a poor country," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 272-295, July.
- World Bank, 2002. "Poverty in Bangladesh : Building on Progress," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15303, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Lokshin, Michael, 2004. "Gainers and losers from trade reform in Morocco," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3368, The World Bank.
- Deaton, Angus, 1989. "Rice Prices and Income Distribution in Thailand: A Non-parametric Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(395), pages 1-37, Supplemen.
- A. de Janvry & E. Sadoulet, 2002. "World Poverty and the Role of Agricultural Technology: Direct and Indirect Effects," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 1-26.
- L. Alan Winters, 2002. "Trade Liberalisation and Poverty: What are the Links?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(9), pages 1339-1367, 09.
- Ravallion, Martin, 2004. "Pro-poor growth : A primer," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3242, The World Bank.
- de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Anda, Gustavo Gordillo, 1995. "NAFTA and Mexico's maize producers," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(8), pages 1349-1362, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3980. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.