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La croissance pro-pauvres au Burkina Faso. L’éviction partielle de l’axiome d’anonymat en présence de données transversales

  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

L’étude propose de contribuer au débat sur la croissance pro-pauvres au Burkina Faso, et présente une nouvelle évidence empirique, fondée sur une approche ex ante du bien-être à partir de données transversales, permettant de lever partiellement l’« axiome d’anonymat » – identifier les effets de croissance et de distribution selon les formes de pauvreté et de vulnérabilité, entre 1994-95 et 2003. Premièrement, au niveau de l’ensemble de l’économie, la mise en évidence du caractère pro-pauvres de la croissance négative des dépenses, en présence de l’axiome d’anonymat, imputable à l’interférence positive de l’inégalité, contribuant à réduire la progression des privations, contraste avec les enseignements de l’approche ex ante du bien-être, suggérant un processus de croissance, certes pro-pauvres, mais plus complexe. En effet, la baisse de la pauvreté durable et transitoire involutive est due à l’interférence positive de l’inégalité, ce qui signifie que la récession des dépenses des ménages au cours de la période a été fortement pro-pauvres durables et pro-pauvres transitoires involutifs. Par contre, les changements inhérents à l’inégalité n’ont contribué qu’à freiner marginalement la progression de la pauvreté transitoire évolutive – processus faiblement pro-pauvres. Deuxièmement, l’analyse selon le milieu révèle également un processus de croissance contrasté en fonction des formes de pauvreté. D’une part, dans les villes, alors que l’approche en termes de bien-être ex post évoque l’existence d’une croissance « anti-pauvres », la récession des dépenses des ménages urbains au cours de la période a été seulement anti-pauvres durables, la dynamique des formes transitoires de pauvreté exhibant un processus de croissance faiblement pro-pauvres. D’autre part, en milieu rural, l’analyse en présence de l’axiome d’anonymat enseigne que les changements inhérents à l’inégalité ont contribué à freiner la progression du ratio de pauvreté globale. Or, si la dynamique de pauvreté durable et transitoire involutive traduit un processus de croissance pro-pauvres, s’agissant de la pauvreté transitoire évolutive, un processus de croissance anti-pauvres semble prévaloir. Les courbes de croissance de pauvreté illustrent ces évolutions. Ainsi, la distinction des formes de pauvreté, fondée sur une dissociation ex ante du bien-être et de la vulnérabilité, contribue à mieux caractériser le processus de croissance. Par exemple, au niveau de l’ensemble de l’économie, l’accroissement observé du ratio de pauvreté entre 1994-95 et 2003 est expliqué par la progression de la pauvreté transitoire évolutive, c’est-à-dire la réduction du bien-être des individus ayant au moins 60 pour cent de chance de ne plus être pauvres à court terme. Or, c’est précisément pour ces groupes que le processus de croissance a été très faiblement pro-pauvres. Néanmoins, les données disponibles ne permettent que de lever partiellement l’axiome d’anonymat, puisqu’il est impossible d’appréhender la mobilité ascendante ou descendante, ainsi que la variation des gains des individus. The study proposes to contribute to the debate on pro-poor growth in Burkina Faso, and presents anew empirical evidence, based on an ex ante approach of welfare with cross-sections data, allowing to eliminate partially the « anonymity axiom » – the specification of the effects of growth and distribution according to the forms of poverty and vulnerability, between 1994-95 and 2003. Firstly, for the whole of the economy, the description of the pro-poor character of the negative growth of the expenditure, in the presence of the anonymity axiom, due to the positive interference of the inequality, contributing to reduce the progression of the deprivations, contrasts with the lesson of the ex ante approach of welfare, indicating a more complex process of pro-poor growth. Indeed, the fall of durable and involutive transient poverty is due to the positive interference of the inequality, which means that the recession of the households’ expenditure during the period was strongly pro-poor durable and pro-poor involutive transient. On the other hand, the changes in relation to the inequality contributed only marginally to slow down the progression of the evolutive transient poverty – process slightly pro-poor. Secondly, the analysis according to the areas also reveals a process of growth contrasted according to the forms of poverty. On the one hand, in the cities, whereas the approach in terms of ex post welfare evokes the existence of an « anti-poor » growth, the recession of the urban households’ expenditure during the period was only anti-poor durable, the dynamics of the transient forms of poverty highlighting a process of growth slightly pro-poor. However, if the dynamics of durable and involutive transient poverty represents a process of pro-poor growth, with regard to the evolutive transient poverty, a process of anti-poor growth seems to prevail. The poverty growth curves illustrate these evolutions. Thus, the distinction of the forms of poverty, based on an ex ante dissociation of the welfare and vulnerability, contributes to better characterizing the process of growth. For example, for the whole of the economy, the increase observed of the poverty headcount between 1994-95 and 2003 is explained by the progression of evolutive transient poverty, i.e. the reduction of the welfare of the individuals having at least 60 percent of chance not to be poor in the short-term. However, it is precisely for these groups that the process of growth was very slightly pro-poor. Nevertheless, the data available only allow to eliminate partially the anonymity axiom, since it is impossible to apprehend ascending or downward mobility, as well as the variation of the individuals’ income. (Full text in french)

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Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 126.

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Length: 16 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2006
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Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:126
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  1. Nanak Kakwani & Shahid Khandker & Hyun H. Son, 2004. "Pro-poor growth: concepts and measurement with country case studies," Working Papers 1, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
  2. Ravallion, Martin, 2004. "Pro-poor growth : A primer," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3242, The World Bank.
  3. Michael Grimm, 2005. "Removing the anonymity axiom in assessing pro-poor growth," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 113, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  4. Son, Hyun Hwa, 2004. "A note on pro-poor growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 307-314, March.
  5. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 1999. "Are the poor less well insured? Evidence on vulnerability to income risk in rural China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 61-81, February.
  6. Ravallion, Martin & Shaohua Chen, 2001. "Measuring pro-poor growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2666, The World Bank.
  7. Stephan Klasen, 2005. "Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 246, OECD Publishing.
  8. Kakwani, N., 1990. "Testing For Significance Of Poverty Differences ; With Application To Cote D'Ivoire," Papers 90-3, New South Wales - School of Economics.
  9. Bhagwati, Jagdish N., 1988. "Poverty and public policy," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 539-555, May.
  10. Atkinson, A B, 1987. "On the Measurement of Poverty," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 749-64, July.
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