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Wzrost sprzyjaj¹cy ubogim: koncepcje i pomiar dla polski w latach 2005-2015

Author

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  • Tomasz Panek

    (Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics)

Abstract

Po przyst¹pieniu Polski do Unii Europejskiej w 2004 r. wzrost gospodarczy znacznie przyspieszy³ a œrednie tempo wzrostu PKB w przeci¹gu 10 lat wynios³o przesz³o 4 proc. Szybkiemu wzrostowi gospodarczemu towarzyszy³ wzrost dochodów realnych gospodarstw domowych. Powstaje pytanie czy z szybkiego wzrostu PKB oraz dochodów realnych ludnoœci bardziej skorzystali ubodzy czy te¿ nieubodzy. Innymi s³owy czy wzrost gospodarczy by³ sprzyjaj¹cy ubogim czy te¿ nieubogim. Problematyka wp³ywu wzrostu gospodarczego na redukcjê ubóstwa stanowi od kilkunastu lat przedmiot dyskusji naukowej i badañ empirycznych. W ostatnich latach pojawi³o siê szereg propozycji definicji wzrostu sprzyjaj¹cego ubogim. Pomimo braku konsensusu co do definicji pojêcia wzrostu sprzyjaj¹cego ubogim mo¿emy wyró¿niæ tutaj dwa podstawowe podejœcia konceptualne – absolutne i relatywne. Podejœcia te ró¿ni¹ siê miêdzy sob¹ ze wzglêdu na punkt odniesienia stosowany przy ocenie zmian zamo¿noœci (mierzonej wysokoœci¹ dochodów czy te¿ wydatków konsumpcyjnych) badanych grup jednostek, czyli od przyjêcia czy absolutny czy te¿ relatywny wzrost zamo¿noœci jest wymagany do oceny tych zmian jako korzystnych dla danej grupy jednostek. W literaturze przedmiotu funkcjonuj¹ ró¿ne kryteria rozró¿niaj¹ce sposoby analizy charakteru wzrostu. Pierwsze z nich zwi¹zane jest z aksjomatem anonimowoœci. W podejœciu bazuj¹cym na anonimowoœci nie musimy obserwowaæ w analizowanym okresie zmian zamo¿noœci (dochodów) tych samych jednostek. Natomiast w drugim podejœciu aksjomat anonimowoœci jest odrzucany - obserwacji musz¹ podlegaæ te same jednostki. W ramach drugiego kryterium sposobu analizy charakteru wzrostu rozró¿niamy podejœcie czêœciowe i podejœcie pe³ne. Pierwsze z nich nie wymaga ustalenia granicy ubóstwa. Analizy charakteru wzrostu opieraj¹ siê w tym podejœciu na krzywych dominacji. Jego ograniczeniem jest niemo¿noœæ oceny charakteru wzrostu gdy nie spe³niony jest warunek dominacji, st¹d te¿ podejœcie to nazywane jest podejœciem czêœciowym. Drugie z podejœæ (podejœcie pe³ne) bazuje na wskaŸnikach wzrostu sprzyjaj¹cego ubogim i pozwala w ka¿dej sytuacji oceniæ charakter wzrostu. W czêœci teoretycznej opracowania dokonano uporz¹dkowania definicji wzrostu sprzyjaj¹cego ubogim rozró¿niaj¹c przede wszystkim wzrost sprzyjaj¹cy ubogim w ujêciu absolutnym i w ujêciu relatywnym, a w ich ramach wzrost „mocny” i wzrost „s³aby”. W kolejnym kroku zosta³y przedstawione ró¿ne podejœcia do analizy charakteru wzrostu oraz podstawowe miary wzrostu sprzyjaj¹cego ubogim. Obok prezentacji teoretycznych podstaw konstrukcji tych miar omówiono ich podstawowe zalety i ograniczenia. W czêœci empirycznej opracowania dokonano weryfikacji hipotezy czy wzrost gospodarczy w Polsce w latach 2005-2015 by³ sprzyjaj¹cy ubogim, stosuj¹c wczeœniej przedstawione metody oceny charakteru wzrostu. Podstaw¹ przeprowadzonych analiz charakteru wzrostu w Polsce s¹ dane panelowe z badania Diagnoza Spo³eczna (DS) realizowanego przez Radê Monitoringu Spo³ecznego.

Suggested Citation

  • Tomasz Panek, 2018. "Wzrost sprzyjaj¹cy ubogim: koncepcje i pomiar dla polski w latach 2005-2015," Working Papers 80, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:isd:wpaper:80
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    polaryzacja ekonomiczna; indeksy polaryzacji; zanikanie klasy œrodkowej.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being

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