IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/war/wpaper/2015-07.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Is the income elasticity of the willingness to pay for pollution control constant?

Author

Listed:
  • Edward S. Barbier

    () (Department of Economics & Finance, University of Wyoming)

  • Mikołaj Czajkowski

    () (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)

  • Nick Hanley

    () (University of St Andrews, School of Geography and Sustainable Development)

Abstract

This paper explores both theoretically and empirically whether or not the willingness to pay (WTP) for pollution control varies with income. Our model indicates that the income elasticity of the marginal WTP for pollution reduction is only constant under very restrictive conditions, which are not necessary for an environmental Kuznets curve relationship between pollution and income. Our empirical analysis tests the null hypothesis that the elasticity of the WTP for pollution control with respect to income is constant, employing a multi-country contingent valuation study of eutrophication reduction in the Baltic Sea. Our findings reject this hypothesis, and estimate an income elasticity of the WTP for eutrophication control of 0.1 - 0.2 for low-income respondents and 0.6 - 0.7 for high-income respondents. Thus, our empirical results suggest that the elasticity is not constant and always less than one.

Suggested Citation

  • Edward S. Barbier & Mikołaj Czajkowski & Nick Hanley, 2015. "Is the income elasticity of the willingness to pay for pollution control constant?," Working Papers 2015-07, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
  • Handle: RePEc:war:wpaper:2015-07
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.wne.uw.edu.pl/index.php/download_file/1542/
    File Function: First version, 2015
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Khan, Mohsm S. & Ross, Knud Z., 1977. "The functional form of the aggregate import demand equation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 149-160, May.
    2. Heini Ahtiainen & Janne Artell & Mikołaj Czajkowski & Berit Hasler & Linus Hasselström & Anni Huhtala & Jürgen Meyerhoff & James C.R. Smart & Tore Söderqvist & Mohammed H. Alemu & Daija Angeli & Ki, 2014. "Benefits of meeting nutrient reduction targets for the Baltic Sea - a contingent valuation study in the nine coastal states," Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(3), pages 278-305, November.
    3. Eric J. Horsch & David J. Lewis, 2009. "The Effects of Aquatic Invasive Species on Property Values: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 85(3), pages 391-409.
    4. Czajkowski, Mikolaj & Scasný, Milan, 2010. "Study on benefit transfer in an international setting. How to improve welfare estimates in the case of the countries' income heterogeneity?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(12), pages 2409-2416, October.
    5. Heini Ahtiainen & Janne Artell & Mikołaj Czajkowski & Jürgen Meyerhoff, 2015. "Performance of different approaches in international benefit transfer: Insights from a nine country experiment," Working Papers 2015-28, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    6. Udo Ebert, 2003. "Environmental Goods and the Distribution of Income," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 25(4), pages 435-459, August.
    7. Krzysztof Berbeka & Mikołaj Czajkowski & Agnieszka Markowska, 2012. "Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Poland – Efficiency, Costs and Returns to Scale," Working Papers 2012-03, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    8. Robert J. Johnston & Randall S. Rosenberger, 2010. "Methods, Trends And Controversies In Contemporary Benefit Transfer," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 479-510, July.
    9. Rowe, Robert D. & Schulze, William D. & Breffle, William S., 1996. "A Test for Payment Card Biases," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 178-185, September.
    10. Ready, Richard C. & Malzubris, Jânis & Senkane, Silva, 2002. "The relationship between environmental values and income in a transition economy: surface water quality in Latvia," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(1), pages 147-156, February.
    11. Gordon A. King, 1984. "Estimating Functional Forms with Special Reference to Agriculture: Discussion," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 66(2), pages 221-222.
    12. McCONNELL, KENNETH E., 1997. "Income and the demand for environmental quality," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(4), pages 383-399, July.
    13. David Pearce & Charles Palmer, 2001. "Public and private spending for environmental protection: a cross-country policy analysis," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 22(4), pages 403-456, December.
    14. Mishili, Fulgence J. & Temu, Anna A. & Fulton, Joan R. & Lowenberg-DeBoer, James, 2009. "Consumer Preferences As Drivers Of The Common Bean Trade In Tanzania: A Marketing Perspective," Working papers 48644, Purdue University, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    15. Bengt Kristrom & Pere Riera, 1996. "Is the income elasticity of environmental improvements less than one?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 7(1), pages 45-55, January.
    16. Ghalwash, Tarek, 2006. "Demand for Environmental Quality: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Behavior in Sweden," Umeå Economic Studies 676, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
    17. Chang, Hui-shyong, 1977. "Functional Forms and the Demand for Meat in the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 59(3), pages 355-359, August.
    18. Flores, Nicholas E. & Carson, Richard T., 1997. "The Relationship between the Income Elasticities of Demand and Willingness to Pay," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 287-295, July.
    19. Henrik Lindhjem & Tran Tuan, 2012. "Valuation of species and nature conservation in Asia and Oceania: a meta-analysis," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 14(1), pages 1-22, January.
    20. I. Bateman & R. Brouwer & S. Ferrini & M. Schaafsma & D. Barton & A. Dubgaard & B. Hasler & S. Hime & I. Liekens & S. Navrud & L. De Nocker & R. Ščeponavičiūtė & D. Semėnienė, 2011. "Making Benefit Transfers Work: Deriving and Testing Principles for Value Transfers for Similar and Dissimilar Sites Using a Case Study of the Non-Market Benefits of Water Quality Improvements Across E," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 50(3), pages 365-387, November.
    21. Andreoni, James & Levinson, Arik, 2001. "The simple analytics of the environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 269-286, May.
    22. J. Walter Milon & Jonathan Gressel & David Mulkey, 1984. "Hedonic Amenity Valuation and Functional Form Specification," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 60(4), pages 378-387.
    23. Kemp, Gordon C. R., 1996. "Scale equivariance and the Box-Cox transformation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 1-6, April.
    24. Tarek Ghalwash, 2008. "Demand for Environmental Quality: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Behavior in Sweden," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 41(1), pages 71-87, September.
    25. Han, Aaron K., 1987. "Non-parametric analysis of a generalized regression model : The maximum rank correlation estimator," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2-3), pages 303-316, July.
    26. Krinsky, Itzhak & Robb, A Leslie, 1986. "On Approximating the Statistical Properties of Elasticities," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(4), pages 715-719, November.
    27. Stokey, Nancy L, 1998. "Are There Limits to Growth?," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(1), pages 1-31, February.
    28. Brian Roach & Kevin J. Boyle & Michael Welsh, 2002. "Testing Bid Design Effects in Multiple-Bounded, Contingent-Valuation Questions," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 78(1), pages 121-131.
    29. Ready, Richard & Navrud, Stale, 2006. "International benefit transfer: Methods and validity tests," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 429-434, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Boyce, Christopher & Czajkowski, Mikołaj & Hanley, Nick, 2019. "Personality and economic choices," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 82-100.
    2. Moritz A. Drupp, 2018. "Limits to Substitution Between Ecosystem Services and Manufactured Goods and Implications for Social Discounting," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 69(1), pages 135-158, January.
    3. Meya, Jasper N. & Drupp, Moritz A. & Hanley, Nick, 2018. "Income inequality and the international transfer of environmental values," Economics Working Papers 2017-03, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
    4. Alberini, Anna & Bigano, Andrea & Ščasný, Milan & Zvěřinová, Iva, 2016. "Preferences for Energy Efficiency vs. Renewables: How Much Does a Ton of CO2 Emissions Cost?," MITP: Mitigation, Innovation and Transformation Pathways 249352, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    5. Amoah, Anthony & Ferrini, Silvia & Schaafsma, Marije, 2019. "Electricity outages in Ghana: Are contingent valuation estimates valid?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
    6. Nurmi, Väinö & Ahtiainen, Heini, 2018. "Distributional Weights in Environmental Valuation and Cost-benefit Analysis: Theory and Practice," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 217-228.
    7. Drupp, Moritz A. & Meya, Jasper N. & Baumgärtner, Stefan & Quaas, Martin F., 2017. "Economic inequality and the value of nature," Economics Working Papers 2017-08, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
    8. Baumgärtner, Stefan & Drupp, Moritz A. & Meya, Jasper N. & Munz, Jan M. & Quaas, Martin F., 2016. "Income inequality and willingness to pay for public environmental goods," Economics Working Papers 2016-04, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
    9. Outeiro, Luis & Villasante, Sebastian & Oyarzo, Hugo, 2018. "The interplay between fish farming and nature based recreation-tourism in Southern Chile: A perception approach," Ecosystem Services, Elsevier, vol. 32(PA), pages 90-100.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Baltic Sea; benefit transfer; environmental Kuznets curve; eutrophication; income elasticity of willingness to pay; non-market valuation;

    JEL classification:

    • Q51 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Valuation of Environmental Effects
    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:war:wpaper:2015-07. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marcin Bąba). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/fesuwpl.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.