Upgrading of Symbolic and Synthetic Knowledge Bases: Analysis of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industry and the Automotive Industry in China
The degree and the way of upgrading differ widely per industry. This article tries to give some new insights in these differences by linking the concept of upgrading to that of the knowledge base. Moreover, we try to identify barriers to upgrading as well as the appropriate spatial scale on which upgrading takes place, again for different knowledge bases. We support our argument by analysing the process of upgrading in two industries in China: the AEC industry (in Beijing and Shanghai) and the automotive industry (in Shanghai). Within these industries we focus on upgrading on two levels: within firms and within projects. Our findings for both industries suggest that the principal ways of upgrading of the symbolic knowledge base are joint brainstorming in internal and external project teams and labour mobility. Major factors that hinder the upgrading of symbolic knowledge include the development stage of China, the Chinese educational system and tensions about duplication of western designs. Upgrading of the synthetic knowledge base takes mainly place via inter-company training programmes of foreign firms, technology transfer and labour mobility on the long run. A possible barrier for upgrading of synthetic knowledge, especially in the automotive industry, is that foreign firms tend to keep certain engineering activities in their home base because of the risk of knowledge leakage. However, this is changing quickly as many foreign carmakers and their suppliers invest in engineering centres in China due to an increasing demand for cars, to governmental regulations and to intensifying competition.
|Date of creation:||2011|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Cannaregio, S. Giobbe no 873 , 30121 Venezia|
Web page: http://www.unive.it/dip.economia
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michael Storper & Anthony J. Venables, 2003.
"Buzz: Face-to-Face Contact and the Urban Economy,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0598, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Cristina Chaminade, 2011.
"Are Knowledge Bases Enough? A Comparative Study of the Geography of Knowledge Sources in China (Great Beijing) and India (Pune),"
European Planning Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(7), pages 1357-1373, July.
- Chaminade, Cristina, 2010. "Are knowledge-bases enough? A comparative study of the geography of knowledge sources in China (Great Beijing) and India (Pune)," Papers in Innovation Studies 2010/13, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
- Raphael Kaplinsky & Jeff Readman, 2005. "Globalization and upgrading: what can (and cannot) be learnt from international trade statistics in the wood furniture sector?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(4), pages 679-703, August.
- Gereffi, Gary, 1999. "International trade and industrial upgrading in the apparel commodity chain," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 37-70, June.
- Li, Yong & Oberheitmann, Andreas, 2009. "Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1412-1422, April.
- Kaplinsky, Raphael & Messner, Dirk, 2008. "Introduction: The Impact of Asian Drivers on the Developing World," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 197-209, February.
- Jerker Moodysson & Lars Coenen & BjÃ¸rn Asheim, 2008.
"Explaining Spatial Patterns of Innovation: Analytical and Synthetic Modes of Knowledge Creation in the Medicon Valley Life-Science Cluster,"
Environment and Planning A,
SAGE Publishing, vol. 40(5), pages 1040-1056, May.
- Jerker Moodysson & Lars Coenen & Bjørn Asheim, 2008. "Explaining spatial patterns of innovation: analytical and synthetic modes of knowledge creation in the Medicon Valley life-science cluster," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 40(5), pages 1040-1056, May.
- Giuliani, Elisa & Pietrobelli, Carlo & Rabellotti, Roberta, 2005.
"Upgrading in Global Value Chains: Lessons from Latin American Clusters,"
Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 549-573, April.
- Elisa Giuliani & Carlo Pietrobelli & Roberta Rabellotti, 2004. "Upgrading in global value chains: lessons from latin american clusters," Working Papers 72, SEMEQ Department - Faculty of Economics - University of Eastern Piedmont.
- Robert C. Kloosterman, 2008. "Walls and bridges: knowledge spillover between 'superdutch' architectural firms," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(4), pages 545-563, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ven:wpaper:2011_25. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Geraldine Ludbrook)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.