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Measuring and explaining competition in the financial sector

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  • J.A. Bikker
  • L. Spierdijk

Abstract

The first part of this paper provides a systematic discussion of the structural problems of competition on financial markets as observed from the demand and from the supply side, using a diagnostic framework. Potential impediments to competition are concentration, entry barriers, lack of transparency, product complexity, switching and search costs, financial illiteracy, lack of consumer power and weak intermediaries. In response to such financial market failures, we suggest a number of possible policy reactions. The second part of the paper investigates ways to measure competition and provides empirical figures on banking competition in 101 separate countries and assesses the market structure as monopolistic (or a perfect cartel), perfectly competitive or monopolistic competitive. Also, banking competition is explained, using explanatory variables of market structure, contestability, inter-industry competition, and institutional and macro economic conditions. This analysis provides possible instruments for reform in order to help promote competition. Next, the impact of banking consolidation is examined. Finally, developments in competition are observed over time, generally pointing to a downward trend.

Suggested Citation

  • J.A. Bikker & L. Spierdijk, 2009. "Measuring and explaining competition in the financial sector," Working Papers 09-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:use:tkiwps:0901
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    File URL: https://dspace.library.uu.nl/bitstream/handle/1874/309437/09_01.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. J.A. Bikker & J. Gorter, 2008. "Performance of the Dutch non-life insurance industry: competition, efficiency and focus," Working Papers 08-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
    2. Michiel van Leuvensteijn & Christoffer Kok Sørensen & Jacob A. Bikker & Adrian A.R.J.M. van Rixtel, 2013. "Impact of bank competition on the interest rate pass-through in the euro area," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(11), pages 1359-1380, April.
    3. B. Douglas Bernheim & Daniel M. Garrett, 1996. "The Determinants and Consequences of Financial Education in the Workplace: Evidence from a Survey of Households," NBER Working Papers 5667, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Bikker, Jacob A. & Haaf, Katharina, 2002. "Competition, concentration and their relationship: An empirical analysis of the banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(11), pages 2191-2214, November.
    5. Michiel van Leuvensteijn & J.A. Bikker & A.A.R.J.M. Rixtel & C. Kok-Sorensen, 2007. "A new approach to measuring competition in the loan markets of the Euro area," CPB Discussion Paper 84, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    6. Amparo Nagore & Joaquín Maudos Villarroya, 2005. "Explaining Market Power Differences In Banking: A Cross-Country Study," Working Papers. Serie EC 2005-10, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    7. Juan Fernández De Guevara & Joaquín Maudos, 2007. "Explanatory Factors Of Market Power In The Banking System," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 75(3), pages 275-296, June.
    8. Fernandez de Guevara, Juan & Maudos, Joaquin & Perez, Francisco, 2007. "Integration and competition in the European financial markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 26-45, February.
    9. Claessens, Stijn & Laeven, Luc, 2004. "What Drives Bank Competition? Some International Evidence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 563-583, June.
    10. Boone, J. & van Ours, J.C. & van der Wiel, H.P., 2007. "How (Not) to Measure Competition," Discussion Paper 2007-32, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    11. Bikker, Jacob A. & De Dreu, Jan, 2009. "Operating costs of pension funds: the impact of scale, governance, and plan design," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(01), pages 63-89, January.
    12. J.A. Bikker & K. Haaf, 2000. "Measures of competition and concentration in the banking industry: a review of the literature," Research Series Supervision (discontinued) 27, Netherlands Central Bank, Directorate Supervision.
    13. Jacob Bikker & Laura Spierdijk, 2008. "How Banking competition Changed over Time," DNB Working Papers 167, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    14. Jacob A. Bikker & Jaap W.B. Bos, 2005. "Trends in Competition and Profitability in the Banking Industry: A Basic Framework," SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum, number 2005/2 edited by Morten Balling.
    15. Hempell, Hannah S., 2002. "Testing for Competition Among German Banks," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,04, Deutsche Bundesbank.
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    17. Sandra F. Braunstein & Carolyn Welch, 2002. "Financial literacy: an overview of practice, research, and policy," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Nov, pages 445-457.
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    24. G. Russo & W.H.J. Hassink, 2005. "The Part-Time Wage Penalty: a Career Perspective," Working Papers 01-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
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    Cited by:

    1. Matousek, Roman & Nguyen, Thao Ngoc & Chris, Stewart, 2016. "Performance of the banking sector of a developing country: A non-structural model using the disequilibrium approach," Economics Discussion Papers 2016-2, School of Economics, Kingston University London.
    2. Andrievskaya, Irina & Semenova, Maria, 2016. "Does banking system transparency enhance bank competition? Cross-country evidence," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 33-50.
    3. Matousek, Roman & Nguyen, Thao Ngoc & Stewart, Chris, 2013. "Market structure in the banking sector: Evidence from a developing economy," Economics Discussion Papers 2013-1, School of Economics, Kingston University London.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    competition; concentration; entry barriers; transparency; consolidation; contestability; institutional conditions; restrictions on activities or investment; regulation; Panzar-Rosse model;

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