IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/use/tkiwps/0801.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Performance of the Dutch non-life insurance industry: competition, efficiency and focus

Author

Listed:
  • J.A. Bikker
  • J. Gorter

Abstract

This paper investigates competition in the Dutch non-life insurance industry indirectly by measuring scale economies and X-inefficiency, assuming that strong competition would force insurance firms to exploit unused scale economies and to push down inefficiencies. We observe substantial economies of scale (on average 11%) that are larger for smaller firms. Despite considerable consolidation in the industry over the last decade, scale economies have increased, as the optimal scale has outgrown the actual one. Comparing estimates across aggregation levels, we find that scale economies are smaller for groups and lines of business than they are for firms. Besides scale, focus and organizational form are important cost determinants as well: generally, specialized insurers have lower costs and face greater economies of scale. Estimates of thick frontier efficiency point to huge cost differences across firms and within lines of business. Overall, our results suggest that there is a lack of competitive pressure in the Dutch non-life insurance industry.

Suggested Citation

  • J.A. Bikker & J. Gorter, 2008. "Performance of the Dutch non-life insurance industry: competition, efficiency and focus," Working Papers 08-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:use:tkiwps:0801
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://dspace.library.uu.nl/bitstream/handle/1874/309536/08_01.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Loretta J. Mester, 1989. "Testing for Expense Preference Behavior: Mutual versus Stock Savings and Loans," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(4), pages 483-498, Winter.
    2. Toivanen, Otto, 1997. "Economies of scale and scope in the Finnish non-life insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 759-779, June.
    3. J.A. Bikker, 2001. "Efficiency and cost differences across countries in a unified European banking market," Research Series Supervision (discontinued) 34, Netherlands Central Bank, Directorate Supervision.
    4. F. Fecher & D. Kessler & S. Perelman & P. Pestieau, 1993. "Productive performance of the French insurance industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 77-93, June.
    5. J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss & Hongmin Zi, 1998. "Organizational Form and Efficiency: An Analysis of Stock and Mutual Property-Liability Insurers," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-02, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    6. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1993. "Estimation and Inference in Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195060119, October.
    7. Hanweck, Gerald A. & Hogan, Arthur M. B., 1996. "The structure of the property/casualty insurance industry," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 141-155, May.
    8. J. A. Bikker & M. van Leuvensteijn, 2008. "Competition and efficiency in the Dutch life insurance industry," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(16), pages 2063-2084.
    9. J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss, 1998. "Analyzing Firm Performance in the Insurance Industry Using Frontier Efficiency Methods," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-22, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    10. F Fecher & S Perelman & P Pestieau, 1991. "Scale Economies and Performance in the French Insurance Industry," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 16(3), pages 315-326, July.
    11. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1991. "The dominance of inefficiencies over scale and product mix economies in banking," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 117-148, August.
    12. Cummins, J. David & Rubio-Misas, Maria, 2006. "Deregulation, Consolidation, and Efficiency: Evidence from the Spanish Insurance Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(2), pages 323-355, March.
    13. Geraldine Kaye, 1991. "Economies of Scale in UK Life Insurance Companies: An Empirical Approach," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 16(3), pages 302-314, July.
    14. Andrew M. Yuengert, 1993. "The measurement of efficiency in life insurance estimates of a mixed normal-gamma error model," Research Paper 9308, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    15. Jacob A. Bikker, 2001. "Efficiency in the European banking industry: an exploratory analysis to rank contries," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 17.
    16. Luigi Prosperetti, 1991. "Economies of Scale in Italian Non-Life Insurance*," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 16(3), pages 282-292, July.
    17. Jean Marc Suret, 1991. "Scale and Scope Economies in the Canadian Property and Casualty Insurance Industry," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 16(2), pages 236-256, April.
    18. Yuengert, Andrew M., 1993. "The measurement of efficiency in life insurance: Estimates of a mixed normal-gamma error model," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 483-496, April.
    19. Yukiko Hirao & Tomoo Inoue, 2004. "On the Cost Structure of the Japanese Property‐Casualty Insurance Industry," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 71(3), pages 501-530, September.
    20. Kolari, James & Zardkoohi, Asghar, 1990. " Economies of Scale and Scope in Thrift Institutions: The Case of Finnish Cooperative and Savings Banks," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 92(3), pages 437-451.
    21. Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A., 1993. "Measuring cost efficiency in the property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 463-481, April.
    22. Manning, Willard G. & Mullahy, John, 2001. "Estimating log models: to transform or not to transform?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 461-494, July.
    23. J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss & Hongmin Zi, 1999. "Organizational Form and Efficiency: The Coexistence of Stock and Mutual Property-Liability Insurers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(9), pages 1254-1269, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Trigo Gamarra, Lucinda, 2008. "The effects of liberalization and deregulation on the performance of financial institutions: The case of the German life insurance market," Thuenen-Series of Applied Economic Theory 93, University of Rostock, Institute of Economics.
    2. Ivan Pavic & Maja Pervan, 2010. "Effects Of Corporate Diversification On Its Performance: The Case Of Croatian Non-Life Insurance Industry," Economic Thought and Practice, Department of Economics and Business, University of Dubrovnik, vol. 19(1), pages 49-66, june.
    3. Huang, Wei & Eling, Martin, 2013. "An efficiency comparison of the non-life insurance industry in the BRIC countries," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 226(3), pages 577-591.
    4. J.A. Bikker & L. Spierdijk, 2009. "Measuring and explaining competition in the financial sector," Working Papers 09-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
    5. Gustavo Ferro & Sonia León, 2018. "A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Efficiency in Argentina’s Non-Life Insurance Market," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 43(1), pages 158-174, January.
    6. Irinela Constantina Badea, 2017. "Literature Review On The Determinants Of Insurers’ Financial Performance," Annals - Economy Series, Constantin Brancusi University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 1, pages 206-212, December.
    7. Martin Hodula & Jan Janku & Martin Casta & Adam Kucera, 2020. "On the Determinants of Life and Non-Life Insurance Premiums," Working Papers 2020/8, Czech National Bank.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. J.A. Bikker & J. Gorter, 2008. "Performance of the Dutch non-life insurance industry: competition, efficiency and focus," Working Papers 08-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
    2. G. Russo & W.H.J. Hassink, 2005. "The Part-Time Wage Penalty: a Career Perspective," Working Papers 01-01, Utrecht School of Economics.
    3. Jacob A. Bikker, 2017. "Performance of the life insurance industry under pressure: efficiency, competition and consolidation," Chapters, in: Jacob A. Bikker & Laura Spierdijk (ed.), Handbook of Competition in Banking and Finance, chapter 9, pages 152-182, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Amel, Dean & Barnes, Colleen & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2004. "Consolidation and efficiency in the financial sector: A review of the international evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 2493-2519, October.
    5. Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A. & Xie, Xiaoying & Zi, Hongmin, 2010. "Economies of scope in financial services: A DEA efficiency analysis of the US insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1525-1539, July.
    6. Jaap Bikker & Adelina Popescu, 2014. "Efficiency and competition in the Dutch non-life insurance industry: Effects of the 2006 health care reform," Working Papers 14-12, Utrecht School of Economics.
    7. Biener, Christian & Eling, Martin & Wirfs, Jan Hendrik, 2016. "The determinants of efficiency and productivity in the Swiss insurance industry," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 248(2), pages 703-714.
    8. J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss, 1998. "Analyzing Firm Performance in the Insurance Industry Using Frontier Efficiency Methods," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-22, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    9. Alshammari, Ahmad Alrazni & Syed Jaafar Alhabshi, Syed Musa bin & Saiti, Buerhan, 2019. "The impact of competition on cost efficiency of insurance and takaful sectors: Evidence from GCC markets based on the Stochastic Frontier Analysis," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 410-427.
    10. Shuji Yao & Zhongwei Han & Dan Luo, 2010. "Performance of the Chinese Insurance Industry under Economic Reforms," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12788.
    11. Jarraya, Bilel & Bouri, Abdelfettah, 2012. "Efficiency concept and investigations in insurance industry: A survey," MPRA Paper 53544, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2013.
    12. Berger, Allen N & Cummins, J David & Weiss, Mary A, 1997. "The Coexistence of Multiple Distribution Systems for Financial Services: The Case of Property-Liability Insurance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70(4), pages 515-546, October.
    13. Jacob A. Bikker, 2017. "Competition and Scale Economy Effects of the Dutch 2006 Health-Care Insurance Reform," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 42(1), pages 53-78, January.
    14. Jacob A. Bikker, 2017. "Performance of the life insurance industry under pressure: efficiency, competition and consolidation," Chapters, in: Jacob A. Bikker & Laura Spierdijk (ed.), Handbook of Competition in Banking and Finance, chapter 9, pages 152-182, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    15. J. David Cummins & Giuseppe Turchetti, 1996. "Productivity and Technical Efficiency in the Italian Insurance Industry," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-10, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    16. Bernhard Mahlberg & Thomas Url, 2000. "The Transition to the Single Market in the German Insurance Industry," WIFO Working Papers 131, WIFO.
    17. J. Cummins & Xiaoying Xie, 2013. "Efficiency, productivity, and scale economies in the U.S. property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 141-164, April.
    18. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    19. Mahlberg Bernhard, 2000. "Technischer Fortschritt und Produktivitätsveränderungen in der deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft / Efficiency Progress and Productivity Change in Germany Insurance Industry," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 220(5), pages 565-591, October.
    20. Biener, Christian & Eling, Martin, 2012. "Organization and efficiency in the international insurance industry: A cross-frontier analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 221(2), pages 454-468.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Non-life insurance; economies of scale; market structure; concentration; competition; X-efficiency; total cost function; aggregation; insurance groups; firms and lines of business;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:use:tkiwps:0801. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/eiruunl.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Marina Muilwijk (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/eiruunl.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.