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The Impact of Market Structure, Contestability and Institutional Environment on Banking Competition


  • J.A. Bikker
  • L. Spierdijk
  • P. Finnie


Using a measure of competition based on the Panzar-Rosse model, this paper explains bank competition across 76 countries on the basis of various determinants. Studies explaining banking competition are rare and typically insuffciently robust as they are based on a limited number of countries only. Traditionally, market structure indicators, such as the number of banks and banking concentration, have been considered the major determinants of competition in the banking sector. However, we find that these variables have no significant impact on market power. Instead, we show that a country's institutional framework is a key factor in explaining banking competition. Extensive regulation, particularly antitrust policies, improves the competitive environment. The foreign investment climate, a proxy of contestability, also plays an important role. The fewer restrictions on foreign investments exist, the more competitive the banking sector becomes. In addition, activity restrictions make large banks less competitive and collusion markups are procyclical. Finally, competition is substantially weaker in countries with a socialist past, such as Central- and Eastern Europe.

Suggested Citation

  • J.A. Bikker & L. Spierdijk & P. Finnie, 2007. "The Impact of Market Structure, Contestability and Institutional Environment on Banking Competition," Working Papers 07-29, Utrecht School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:use:tkiwps:0729

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Humphrey, David, 2009. "Payment scale economies, competition, and pricing," Working Paper Series 1136, European Central Bank.
    2. Jose Felix Izquierdo, 2017. "Modelos para los flujos de nuevo credito en España," Working Papers 17/09, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
    3. Gábor Pellényi & Tamás Borkó, 2009. "Bank Competition and Firm Growth in the Enlarged European Union," Working Paper / FINESS 5.1, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Canan Yildirim, 2014. "Competition in Turkish Banking: Impacts of Restructuring and the Global Financial Crisis," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 52(2), pages 95-124, June.
    5. repec:eco:journ1:2017-02-23 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2010. "Bank competition efficiency in Europe: A frontier approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1808-1817, August.
    7. Anzoategui, Diego & Pería, María Soledad Martínez & Melecky, Martin, 2012. "Bank competition in Russia: An examination at different levels of aggregation," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 42-57.
    8. J.A. Bikker & L. Spierdijk, 2008. "How Banking Competition changed over Time," Working Papers 08-04, Utrecht School of Economics.
    9. Andrievskaya, Irina & Semenova, Maria, 2016. "Does banking system transparency enhance bank competition? Cross-country evidence," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 33-50.
    10. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2015. "A frontier measure of U.S. banking competition," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 246(2), pages 450-461.
    11. Stavarek, Daniel & Repkova, Iveta, 2011. "Estimation of the competitive conditions in the Czech banking sector," MPRA Paper 30720, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Coccorese, Paolo & Pellecchia, Alfonso, 2013. "Multimarket contact, competition and pricing in banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 187-214.
    13. Kumar Kar, Ashim & Bali Swain, Ranjula, 2014. "Competition, performance and portfolio quality in microfinance markets," Working Paper Series 2014:8, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    14. John Goddard & John O.S. Wilson, 2008. "Measuring Competition in Banking : A Disequilibrium Approach," EIEF Working Papers Series 0808, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised Apr 2008.
    15. Carlos P. Barros & Qi Bin Liang & Nicolas Peypoch, 2014. "Technical Efficiency in the Angolan Banking Sector with the B-convexity Model," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(3), pages 443-454, September.

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    banking competition; market structure; concentration; contestability; interindustry competition;

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