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How Banking competition Changed over Time

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  • Jacob Bikker
  • Laura Spierdijk

Abstract

This paper is the first detailed and world-wide investigation of the developments in banking competition during the past fifteen years. Using the Panzar-Rosse approach, we establish significant changes over time in the competitiveness of the banking industry. The changes in competition over time are small on average, but substantial for several countries and regions. Various Western economies faced a significant decline in banking competition during recent years. In particular, the competitive climate in the euro area was subject to a major break around 2001 - 2002, initiating a period of less competition. Also for the United States and Japan we establish a break during this period. The part of Eastern Europe that now belongs to the European Union experienced a significant but modest decrease in competition during the past ten years. Furthermore, the banking industry in emerging markets became more competitive during the last decade. We attribute the predominantly downward trend in competition to increased bank size and the shift from traditional intermediation to off-balance sheet activities.

Suggested Citation

  • Jacob Bikker & Laura Spierdijk, 2008. "How Banking competition Changed over Time," DNB Working Papers 167, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:dnb:dnbwpp:167
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Diebold, Francis X. & Chen, Celia, 1996. "Testing structural stability with endogenous breakpoint A size comparison of analytic and bootstrap procedures," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 221-241, January.
    2. Jim Wong & Eric Tak-Chuen Wong & Tom Pak-Wing Fong & Ka-Fai Choi, 2008. "Competition in Hong Kong’s Banking Sector: A Panzar–Rosse Assessment," Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Banking and Financial Institutions, in: Hans Genberg & Cho-Hoi Hui (ed.), The Banking Sector in Hong Kong, chapter 2, pages 17-31, Palgrave Macmillan.
    3. Michiel van Leuvensteijn & Jacob Bikker & Adrian van Rixtel & Christoffer Kok Sørensen, 2011. "A new approach to measuring competition in the loan markets of the euro area," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(23), pages 3155-3167.
    4. J.A. Bikker & L. Spierdijk & P. Finnie, 2007. "The Impact of Market Structure, Contestability and Institutional Environment on Banking Competition," Working Papers 07-29, Utrecht School of Economics.
    5. Jacob A. Bikker, 2004. "Competition and Efficiency in a Unified European Banking Market," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2830.
    6. Badi H. Baltagi, 2021. "Simultaneous Equations with Error Components," Springer Texts in Business and Economics, in: Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, edition 6, chapter 0, pages 157-186, Springer.
    7. Jacob Bikker & Laura Spierdijk & Paul Finnie, 2006. "Misspecifiation of the Panzar-Rosse Model: Assessing Competition in the Banking Industry," DNB Working Papers 114, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    8. Kishan, Ruby P & Opiela, Timothy P, 2000. "Bank Size, Bank Capital, and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 121-141, February.
    9. Angelini, Paolo & Cetorelli, Nicola, 2003. "The Effects of Regulatory Reform on Competition in the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(5), pages 663-684, October.
    10. Jacob A. Bikker & Laura Spierdijk & Paul Finnie, 2006. "The Impact of Bank Size on Market Power," DNB Working Papers 120, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    competition; banking industry; Panzar-Rosse model; structural breaks.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

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