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Fitting dynamic factor models to non-stationary time series

  • Eichler Michael
  • Motta Giovanni
  • Sachs Rainer von


Factor modelling of a large time series panel has widely proven useful to reduce its cross-sectional dimensionality. This is done by explaining common co-movements in the panel through the existence of a small number of common components, up to some idiosyncratic behaviour of each individual series. To capture serial correlation in the common components, a dynamic structure is used as in traditional (uni- or multivariate) time series analysis of second order structure, i.e. allowing for infinite-length filtering of the factors via dynamic loadings. In this paper, motivated from economic data observed over long time periods which show smooth transitions over time in their covariance structure, we allow the dynamic structure of the factor model to be non-stationary over time, by proposing a deterministic time variation of its loadings. In this respect we generalise existing recent work on static factor models with time-varying loadings as well as the classical, i.e. stationary, dynamic approximate factor model. Motivated from the stationary case, we estimate the common components of our dynamic factor model by the eigenvectors of a consistent estimator of the now time-varying spectral density matrix of the underlying data-generating process. This can be seen as time-varying principal components approach in the frequency domain. We derive consistency of this estimator in a "double-asymptotic" framework of both cross-section and time dimension tending to infinity. A simulation study illustrates the performance of our estimators.

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Paper provided by Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR) in its series Research Memorandum with number 002.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:unm:umamet:2009002
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  1. Mario Forni & Marc Hallin & Lucrezia Reichlin & Marco Lippi, 2000. "The generalised dynamic factor model: identification and estimation," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/10143, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  2. Forni, Mario & Hallin, Marc & Lippi, Marco & Reichlin, Lucrezia, 2002. "The Generalized Dynamic Factor Model: One-Sided Estimation and Forecasting," CEPR Discussion Papers 3432, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Marco Del Negro & Christopher Otrok, 2008. "Dynamic factor models with time-varying parameters: measuring changes in international business cycles," Staff Reports 326, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  4. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2005. "Implications of Dynamic Factor Models for VAR Analysis," NBER Working Papers 11467, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2002. "Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 191-221, January.
  6. Chamberlain, Gary & Rothschild, Michael, 1983. "Arbitrage, Factor Structure, and Mean-Variance Analysis on Large Asset Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(5), pages 1281-304, September.
  7. Hoffman, D. & Pagan, A., 1988. "Post-Sample Prediction Tests For Generalized Method Of Moment Estimators," RCER Working Papers 129, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  8. Mario Forni & Marc Hallin & Marco Lippi & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2004. "The generalised dynamic factor model: consistency and rates," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/10133, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  9. Motta, Giovanni & Hafner, Christian M. & von Sachs, Rainer, 2011. "Locally Stationary Factor Models: Identification And Nonparametric Estimation," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(06), pages 1279-1319, December.
  10. Forni, Mario & Lippi, Marco, 2001. "The Generalized Dynamic Factor Model: Representation Theory," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(06), pages 1113-1141, December.
  11. Jiazhu Pan & Qiwei Yao, 2008. "Modelling multiple time series via common factors," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 22876, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  12. Jushan Bai, 2003. "Inferential Theory for Factor Models of Large Dimensions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(1), pages 135-171, January.
  13. Jiazhu Pan & Qiwei Yao, 2008. "Modelling multiple time series via common factors," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 95(2), pages 365-379.
  14. Peter Molenaar & Jan Gooijer & Bernhard Schmitz, 1992. "Dynamic factor analysis of nonstationary multivariate time series," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 57(3), pages 333-349, September.
  15. Hallin, Marc & Liska, Roman, 2007. "Determining the Number of Factors in the General Dynamic Factor Model," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 102, pages 603-617, June.
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