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The Instability and Inequities of the Global Reserve System

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  • José Antonio Ocampo

Abstract

This paper argues that the current global reserve system is inherently unstable due to the use of a national currency as the major international reserve currency, and the high demand for “self-insurance” by developing countries. The latter is due to the mix of highly pro-cyclical capital flows and the limited room to maneuver that developing countries have to manage counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies. Both features imply that the system is also inequitable. An important insight of the paper is that such inequities feed into the instability of current arrangements. Any meaningful reform of the system must therefore address these two interlinked features.

Suggested Citation

  • José Antonio Ocampo, 2007. "The Instability and Inequities of the Global Reserve System," Working Papers 59, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
  • Handle: RePEc:une:wpaper:59
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:idb:brikps:59438 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Graciela L. Kaminsky & Carmen M. Reinhart & Carlos A. Végh, 2005. "When It Rains, It Pours: Procyclical Capital Flows and Macroeconomic Policies," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2004, Volume 19, pages 11-82 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Ayhan Kose & Kenneth Rogoff & Eswar S Prasad & Shang-Jin Wei, 2003. "Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries; Some Empirical Evidence," IMF Occasional Papers 220, International Monetary Fund.
    4. John Williamson, 2004. "The future of the global financial system," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(4), pages 607-611.
    5. José Antonio Ocampo & Juan Martin, 2003. "Globalization and Development : A Latin American and Caribbean Perspective," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 14455.
    6. Guillermo A. Calvo & Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1993. "Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(1), pages 108-151, March.
    7. Juan Carlos Ramírez & Vivianne Ventura-Dias & Alicia Bárcena & Eugenio Lahera, 2003. "Globalization and Development: A Latin American and Caribbean Perspective," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 59438 edited by Juan Martin & José Antonio Ocampo, February.
    8. Reisen, Helmut, 2003. "Ratings since the Asian crisis," Copublicaciones, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), number 1790, September.
    9. Michael P. Dooley & David Folkerts-Landau & Peter M. Garber, 2005. "An essay on the revived Bretton Woods system," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Feb.
    10. Serge Jeanneau & Camilo E Tovar, 2006. "Domestic bond markets in Latin America: achievements and challenges," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, June.
    11. Ocampo, Jose Antonio & Stiglitz, Joseph E. (ed.), 2008. "Capital Market Liberalization and Development," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199238446.
    12. White, William R., 2005. "Procyclicality in the Financial System: Do We Need a New Macrofinancial Stabilization Framework?," Kiel Economic Policy Papers 2, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    13. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1993. "“Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors," MPRA Paper 7125, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Hyman P. Minsky, 1992. "The Financial Instability Hypothesis," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_74, Levy Economics Institute.
    15. José Antonio Ocampo & Stephany Griffith-Jones, 2007. "A counter-cyclical framework for a development-friendly international financial architecture," Working Papers 39, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    16. Claudio Borio & Craig Furfine & Philip Lowe, 2001. "Procyclicality of the financial system and financial stability: issues and policy options," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Marrying the macro- and micro-prudential dimensions of financial stability, volume 1, pages 1-57 Bank for International Settlements.
    17. Stiglitz, Joseph & Ocampo, Jose Antonio & Spiegel, Shari & Ffrench-Davis, Ricardo & Nayyar, Deepak, 2006. "Stability with Growth: Macroeconomics, Liberalization and Development," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199288144.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gheorghe Voinea & Sorin Gabriel Anton, 2009. "Redefining the role of international monetary fund in the light of the current economic and financial crisis," Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iasi - Stiinte Economice, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 56, pages 202-209, November.
    2. Rudiger von Arnim & Daniele Tavani & Laura Barbosa de Carvalho, 2012. "Globalization as coordination failure: A Keynesian perspective," Working Papers 1202, New School for Social Research, Department of Economics.
    3. Carabelli, Anna M. & Cedrini, Mario, 2013. "Globalization and Keynes’s Ideal of a “Sounder Political Economy between all Nations," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201349, University of Turin.
    4. Muchlinski, Elke, 2010. "Metaphern, Begriffe und Bedeutungen: Das Beispiel internationale monetäre Institutionen," Discussion Papers 2010/14, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    5. Shrestha, Prakash Kumar, 2013. "Banking Ssystems, central banks and international reserve accumulation in East Asian economies," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 7, pages 1-29.
    6. Laura Barbosa de Carvalho, 2012. "Current Account Imbalances and Economic Growth: a two-country model with real-financial linkages," Working Papers 1203, New School for Social Research, Department of Economics.
    7. Stephany Griffith Jones & José Antonio Ocampo, 2009. "Les fonds souverains du point de vue des pays en développement," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 9(1), pages 259-274.
    8. Stephany Griffith-Jones & José Antonio Ocampo, 2009. "Sovereign Wealth Funds : a Developing Country Perspective," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 9(1), pages 241-254.
    9. José Antonio Ocampo Gaviria, 2009. "Economic Policy Implications of the Current Financial Instability," Ensayos Económicos, Central Bank of Argentina, Economic Research Department, vol. 1(53-54), pages 191-215, January -.
    10. Ákos Dani & Ágnes Tõrös, 2011. "China’s Sovereign Wealth Funds: A path to sustained development?," Public Finance Quarterly, State Audit Office of Hungary, vol. 56(2), pages 241-256.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Global reserve currency; seigniorage powers; financial volatility; pro-cyclical macroeconomic policies; self-insurance; inequities of international economic order;

    JEL classification:

    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • F55 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - International Institutional Arrangements

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