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Voluntary Approaches to Food Safety : A Unified Framework

Author

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  • Fares, M.
  • Rouvière, E.

Abstract

The emergence and the multiplication of safety quality management system within the food supply chain were extensively analyzed in the food safety literature. Some papers deal more specifically with the voluntary implementation by firms of these systems (Segerson, 1999; Venturini, 2003; Noelke & Caswell, 2000). Our paper develops a unified analytical framework of this burgeoning literature. We show three original results: (i) when the mandatory threat is strong, the voluntary adoption of safety measures can be implemented without the need of a cost differential assumption (Segerson, 1999), or a reputation effect (Venturini, 2003); (ii) when the mandatory threat is weak, the reputation effect and the liability rule may induce the voluntary adoption only when there is a "hard" response from the consumers; (iii) when the response from consumers is "soft", a well designed contract offered by the retailer in the supply chain can induce the firm to implement voluntary safety measures. ...French Abstract : Ces dernières années en économie agro-alimentaire, la multiplication et le développement de systèmes de management de la qualité (SMQ) au sein de l'offre alimentaire ont fait l'objet un intérêt particulier. Cependant, seules quelques recherches traitent formellement de l'adoption volontaire de tels systèmes par les entreprises (Segerson, 1999; Venturini, 2003; Noelke & Caswell, 2000). Dans cet article, nous proposons un cadre analytique unifié de cette littérature émergente. Premièrement, nous relâchons les hypothèses d'existence d'un différentiel de coût entre des SMQ volontaire et réglementaire (Sergerson, 1999) ou d'un stock de réputation (Venturini, 2003). Nous montrons ainsi qu'une menace réglementaire forte est une condition nécessaire et suffisante à l'adoption volontaire par les entreprises d'un SMQ. Deuxièmement, nous distinguons deux situations lorsque la menace réglementaire est faible. D'une part, suite à une contamination sanitaire quand la réponse des consommateurs ou du marché est " forte ", les effets de réputation et le " design " de la règle de responsabilité jouent comme des incitations à l'adoption volontaire. D'autre part, quand la réponse des consommateurs (du marché) est " molle ", seul le contrat qu'offre le distributeur à l'entreprise peut induire une adoption volontaire.

Suggested Citation

  • Fares, M. & Rouvière, E., 2006. "Voluntary Approaches to Food Safety : A Unified Framework," Working Papers MOISA 200615, UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro - Montpellier, France.
  • Handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:200615
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    File URL: http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/bartoli/moisa/bartoli/download/moisa2006_pdf/WP_15-2006.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kathleen Segerson, 1999. "Mandatory versus voluntary approaches to food safety," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(1), pages 53-70.
    2. Laurian J. Unnevehr & Helen H. Jensen, 1996. "HACCP as a Regulatory Innovation to Improve Food Safety in the Meat Industry," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(3), pages 764-769.
    3. Unnevehr, Laurian J. & Jensen, Helen H., 1999. "Economic Implications of Using HACCP As a Food Safety Regulatory Standard (The)," Staff General Research Papers Archive 1631, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    4. Khanna, Madhu, 2001. " Non-mandatory Approaches to Environmental Protection," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(3), pages 291-324, July.
    5. Loader, Rupert & Hobbs, Jill E., 1999. "Strategic responses to food safety legislation," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 685-706, December.
    6. Henson, Spencer & Heasman, Michael, 1998. "Food safety regulation and the firm: understanding the compliance process1," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 9-23, February.
    7. Julie A. Caswell & Neal H. Hooker, 1996. "HACCP as an International Trade Standard," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(3), pages 775-779.
    8. Henson, Spencer J. & Hooker, Neal H., 2001. "Private Sector Management Of Food Safety: Public Regulation And The Role Of Private Controls," International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA), vol. 4(01).
    9. Noelke, Corinna M. & Caswell, Julie A., 2000. "A Model Of The Implementation Of Quality Management Systems For Credence Attributes," 2000 Annual meeting, July 30-August 2, Tampa, FL 21874, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    10. Unnevehr, Laurian J. & Jensen, Helen H., 1999. "The economic implications of using HACCP as a food safety regulatory standard," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 625-635, December.
    11. Segerson, Kathleen, 1998. "Mandatory vs. Voluntary Approaches to Food Safety," Research Reports 25188, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
    12. Buzby, Jean C. & Frenzen, Paul D., 1999. "Food safety and product liability," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 637-651, December.
    13. Jean-Marie Codron & M'hand Fares & Elodie Rouviere, 2007. "From public to private safety regulation? The case of negotiated agreements in the French fresh produce import industry," International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 6(3), pages 415-427.
    14. Holleran, Erin & Bredahl, Maury E. & Zaibet, Lokman, 1999. "Private incentives for adopting food safety and quality assurance," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 669-683, December.
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    Keywords

    VOLUNTARY APPROACHES; FOOD SAFETY; SUPPLY CHAIN;

    JEL classification:

    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation
    • L81 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Retail and Wholesale Trade; e-Commerce

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