Corruption and Pro-Poor Growth Outcomes: Evidence and Lessons for African Countries
There is growing consensus that corruption hurts economic performance by reducing private investment, adversely affecting the quantity and quality of public infrastructure, reducing tax revenue, and reducing human capital accumulation. In addition to inefficiency effects—lower growth for a given endowment in factors and technology—corruption also has adverse distributional effects as it hurts the poor disproportionately. For a given level of government budget and national income, high corruption countries have lower literacy rates, higher mortality rates, and overall worse human development outcomes. Corruption deepens poverty by reducing pro-poor pubic expenditures, creating artificial shortages and congestion in public services, and inducing a policy bias in favor of capital intensity, which perpetuates unemployment. High levels of corruption in African countries constitute one of the factors behind slow growth and limited progress in poverty reduction. Eradicating corruption in African bureaucracies is a challenging task, especially because it is a systemic phenomenon with effects that often lag far behind the causes. Therefore, explicit strategies are necessary to change the incentive structure by modifying the payoffs and sanctions that govern the interactions between bureaucrats and private economic operators. Strategies to fight corruption include measures to increase transparency in the management of public resources, establishing an incentive structure that rewards honest behavior among civil servants, enforcing transparency in international contracts and equal penalties to all parties to corrupt deals, and promotion of a free and responsible media.
|Date of creation:||2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 418 N Pleasant St, Amherst MA 01002|
Phone: (413) 545-6355
Fax: (413) 545-2921
Web page: http://www.peri.umass.edu/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Paolo Mauro, 1995. "Corruption and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(3), pages 681-712.
- Thierry Verdier & Daron Acemoglu, 2000.
"The Choice between Market Failures and Corruption,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 194-211, March.
- Van Rijckeghem, Caroline & Weder, Beatrice, 2001. "Bureaucratic corruption and the rate of temptation: do wages in the civil service affect corruption, and by how much?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 307-331, August.
- Seema Jayachandran, 2004.
UCLA Economics Online Papers
298, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Jakob Svensson, 2005. "Eight Questions about Corruption," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(3), pages 19-42, Summer.
- Lorenzo Pellegrini & Reyer Gerlagh, 2004. "Corruption's Effect on Growth and its Transmission Channels," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 429-456, 08.
- George A. Akerlof & Janet L. Yellen, 1990. "The Fair Wage-Effort Hypothesis and Unemployment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(2), pages 255-283.
- Bernard Gauthier & Ritva Reinikka, 2006.
"Shifting Tax Burdens through Exemptions and Evasion: an Empirical Investigation of Uganda,"
Journal of African Economies,
Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 15(3), pages 373-398, September.
- Gauthier, Bernard & Reinikka, Ritva, 2001. "Shifting tax burdens through exemptions and evasion - an empirical investigation of Uganda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2735, The World Bank.
- Gupta, Sanjeev & de Mello, Luiz & Sharan, Raju, 2001. "Corruption and military spending," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 749-777, November.
- Mauro, Paolo, 1998. "Corruption and the composition of government expenditure," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 263-279, June.
- Sanjeev Gupta & Hamid Davoodi & Rosa Alonso-Terme, 2002. "Does corruption affect income inequality and poverty?," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 23-45, 03.
- Hillman, Arye L., 2004. "Corruption and public finance: an IMF perspective," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 1067-1077, November.
- Mookherjee, Dilip & Png, I P L, 1995. "Corruptible Law Enforcers: How Should They Be Compensated?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(428), pages 145-59, January.
- Boyce, James K., 1992. "The revolving door? External debt and capital flight: A Philippine case study," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 335-349, March.
- Lui, Francis T, 1985. "An Equilibrium Queuing Model of Bribery," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(4), pages 760-81, August.
- Devarajan, Shantayanan & Easterly, William R & Pack, Howard, 2003.
"Low Investment Is Not the Constraint on African Development,"
Economic Development and Cultural Change,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(3), pages 547-71, April.
- Shantayanan Devarajan & William R. Easterly & Howard Pack, 2002. "Low Investment is Not the Constraint on African Development," Working Papers 13, Center for Global Development.
- Léonce Ndikumana, 2002.
"Public Debts and Private Assets:Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries,"
wp32, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
- Ndikumana, Leonce & Boyce, James K., 2003. "Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 107-130, January.
- Léonce Ndikumana & James K. Boyce, 2002. "Public Debts and Private Assets: Explaining Capital Flight from Sub-Saharan African Countries," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2002-02, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
- Ritva Reinikka & Jakob Svensson, 2005. "Fighting Corruption to Improve Schooling: Evidence from a Newspaper Campaign in Uganda," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(2-3), pages 259-267, 04/05.
- Kwabena Gyimah-Brempong, 2002. "Corruption, economic growth, and income inequality in Africa," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 183-209, November.
- Frank Flatters & W. Macleod, 1995. "Administrative corruption and taxation," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 2(3), pages 397-417, October.
- Sanjeev Gupta, 1998. "Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?," IMF Working Papers 98/76, International Monetary Fund.
- Erwin Tiongson & Hamid Reza Davoodi & Sanjeev Gupta, 2000. "Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services," IMF Working Papers 00/116, International Monetary Fund.
- Léonce Ndikumana & James Boyce, 2002. "Africa’s Debt: Who Owes Whom?," Working Papers wp48, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uma:periwp:wp120. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Judy Fogg)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.