The indirect effect of fine particulate matter on health through individuals' life-style
Limited literature has been published on the association between environmental health indicators, life-style habits and ambient air pollution. We have examined the association of asthma prevalence and the amount of health investment with daily mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm (PM2.5) in 16 metropolitan areas in U.S. using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2001) data in conjunction with the Air Quality System data collected by the Environmental Protection Agency. A multivariate probit approach has been used to estimate recursive systems of equations for environmental health outcomeand life-styles. A piecewise linear relationship has been postulated to describe the association between health outcome, health investment and pollution using the procedure mkspline from STATA 10. This model has allowed for fitting a "breakpoint" in the probit functions. We have assumed one change point at AQI value of 100 which corresponds to the US national air quality standard. The most interesting result concerns the influence of pollution on health-improving life-style choices: below a specified threshold concentration (AQI=100) a positive linear association exists between exposure to PM2.5 and health investments; above the threshold the association becomes negative. Hence, only if ambient pollution is in the 'satisfactory range' (AQI level at or below 100), individuals will have incentive to invest in health.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Neidell, Matthew J., 2004. "Air pollution, health, and socio-economic status: the effect of outdoor air quality on childhood asthma," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1209-1236, November.
- Erbsland, Manfred & Ried, Walter & Ulrich, Volker, 1994. "Health, health care, and the environment: econometric evidence from German micro data," ZEW Discussion Papers 94-16, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- John Mullahy, 1999.
"It'll only hurt a second? Microeconomic determinants of who gets flu shots,"
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(1), pages 9-24.
- John Mullahy, 1998. "It'll Only Hurt a Second? Microeconomic Determinants of Who Gets Flu Shots," NBER Working Papers 6500, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Takeda, Yasuhisa & Kawachi, Ichiro & Yamagata, Zentaro & Hashimoto, Shuji & Matsumura, Yasuhiro & Oguri, Shigenori & Okayama, Akira, 2004. "Multigenerational family structure in Japanese society: impacts on stress and health behaviors among women and men," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 69-81, July.
- Cropper, Maureen L & Oates, Wallace E, 1992. "Environmental Economics: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(2), pages 675-740, June.
- Balia, Silvia & Jones, Andrew M., 2008.
"Mortality, lifestyle and socio-economic status,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 1-26, January.
- S. Balia & AM. Jones, 2004. "Mortality, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Status," Working Paper CRENoS 200416, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
- Silvia Balia & Andrew M Jones, 2005. "Mortality, lifestyle and socio-economic status," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 05/02, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
- Jones, A. P., 1998. "Asthma and domestic air quality," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 47(6), pages 755-764, September.
- Burkhauser, Richard V. & Cawley, John & Schmeiser, Maximilian D., 2009. "The timing of the rise in U.S. obesity varies with measure of fatness," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 307-318, December.
- Espinosa, Javier & Evans, William N., 2008. "Heightened mortality after the death of a spouse: Marriage protection or marriage selection?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 1326-1342, September.
- Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2003.
"Multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood,"
United Kingdom Stata Users' Group Meetings 2003
10, Stata Users Group.
- Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jenkins, 2003. "Multivariate probit regression using simulated maximum likelihood," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(3), pages 278-294, September.
- Mark C. Berger & J. Paul Leigh, 1989. "Schooling, Self-Selection, and Health," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(3), pages 433-455.
- Cinzia Di Novi, 2010. "The influence of traffic-related pollution on individuals' life-style: results from the BRFSS," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(11), pages 1318-1344.
- Cropper, M L, 1981. "Measuring the Benefits from Reduced Morbidity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 235-40, May.
- Contoyannis, Paul & Jones, Andrew M., 2004. "Socio-economic status, health and lifestyle," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 965-995, September.
- Grossman, Michael, 1972. "On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(2), pages 223-55, March-Apr.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uca:ucapdv:144. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lucia Padovani)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.