Heightened mortality after the death of a spouse: Marriage protection or marriage selection?
We test whether the heightened mortality after the death of a spouse represents correlation or causation by examining the heterogeneity in the bereavement effect based on the spouse's cause of death. Some causes of death are correlated with socioeconomic characteristics while others are not. Equality in the bereavement effect across these two types of death would signal a causal relationship while no bereavement effect for uncorrelated causes of death would indicate an omitted variables bias. Results indicate that the observed effect for women is subject to an omitted variables bias but the estimates for men indicate a causal relationship.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Sanders Korenman & David Neumark, 1991.
"Does Marriage Really Make Men More Productive?,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(2), pages 282-307.
- Stephen E. Snyder & William N. Evans, 2006. "The Effect of Income on Mortality: Evidence from the Social Security Notch," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(3), pages 482-495, August.
- Linda Waite, 1995. "Does marriage matter?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 32(4), pages 483-507, November.
- Becker, Gary S, 1973. "A Theory of Marriage: Part I," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(4), pages 813-46, July-Aug..
- Yuanreng Hu & Noreen Goldman, 1990. "Mortality Differentials by Marital Status: An International Comparison," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 27(2), pages 233-250, May.
- Christakis, Nicholas A. & Iwashyna, Theodore J., 2003. "The health impact of health care on families: a matched cohort study of hospice use by decedents and mortality outcomes in surviving, widowed spouses," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 465-475, August.
- Gary R. Lee & Alfred DeMaris & Stefoni Bavin & Rachel Sullivan, 2001. "Gender Differences in the Depressive Effect of Widowhood in Later Life," Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Gerontological Society of America, vol. 56(1), pages S56-S61.
- Mineau, Geraldine P. & Smith, Ken R. & Bean, Lee L., 2002. "Historical trends of survival among widows and widowers," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 245-254, January.
- Lupton, J. & Smith, J.P., 1999.
"Marriage, Assets, and Savings,"
99-12, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
- Becker, Gary S, 1974.
"A Theory of Marriage: Part II,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages S11-S26, Part II, .
- Adam Thomas & Isabel Sawhill, 2002. "For richer or for poorer: Marriage as an antipoverty strategy," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(4), pages 587-599.
- Iwashyna, Theodore J. & Christakis, Nicholas A., 2003. "Marriage, widowhood, and health-care use," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(11), pages 2137-2147, December.
- Umberson, Debra, 1992. "Gender, marital status and the social control of health behavior," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 907-917, April.
- Manor, Orly & Eisenbach, Zvi, 2003. "Mortality after spousal loss: are there socio-demographic differences?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 405-413, January.
- Michael D. Hurd & Daniel McFadden & Angela Merrill, 2001.
"Predictors of Mortality among the Elderly,"
in: Themes in the Economics of Aging, pages 171-198
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gardner, Jonathan & Oswald, Andrew, 2004. "How is mortality affected by money, marriage, and stress?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1181-1207, November.
- Lee Lillard & Constantijn Panis, 1996. "Marital status and mortality: The role of health," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 33(3), pages 313-327, August.
- Schoeni, Robert F, 1995.
"Marital Status and Earnings in Developed Countries,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 8(4), pages 351-59, November.
- Schoeni, R.F., 1996. "Marital Status and Earnings in Developed Countries," Papers 96-14, RAND - Reprint Series.
- Waldron, Ingrid & Hughes, Mary Elizabeth & Brooks, Tracy L., 1996. "Marriage protection and marriage selection--Prospective evidence for reciprocal effects of marital status and health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 113-123, July.
- Manor, Orly & Eisenbach, Zvi & Israeli, Avi & Friedlander, Yechiel, 2000. "Mortality differentials among women: the Israel Longitudinal Mortality Study," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 51(8), pages 1175-1188, October.
- John Murray, 2000. "Marital protection and marital selection: Evidence from a historical-prospective sample of American men," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 37(4), pages 511-521, November.
- Ken Smith & Cathleen Zick & Greg Duncan, 1991. "Remarriage patterns among recent widows and widowers," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 28(3), pages 361-374, August.
- Ken Smith & Cathleen Zick, 1994. "Linked lives, dependent demise? Survival analysis of husbands and wives," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 31(1), pages 81-93, February.
- Noreen Goldman, 1993. "Marriage selection and mortality patterns: Inferences and fallacies," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 30(2), pages 189-208, May.
- Ken Smith & Norman Waitzman, 1994. "Double jeopardy: Interaction effects of marital and poverty status on the risk of mortality," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 31(3), pages 487-507, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:27:y:2008:i:5:p:1326-1342. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.