IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/tse/wpaper/27777.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Competitive Cross-Subsidization

Author

Listed:
  • Chen, Zhijun
  • Rey, Patrick

Abstract

Cross-subsidization arises naturally when firms with different comparative ad- vantages compete for consumers with diverse shopping patterns. Firms then face a form of co-opetition, being substitutes for one-stop shoppers and complements for multi-stop shoppers. Competition for one-stop shoppers then drives total prices down to cost, but firms subsidize weak products with the profit made on strong products. While firms and consumers would benefit from cooperation limiting cross- subsidization (e.g., through price caps), banning below-cost pricing instead increases firms’ profits at the expense of one-stop shoppers; this calls for a cautious use of below-cost pricing regulations in competitive markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Chen, Zhijun & Rey, Patrick, 2013. "Competitive Cross-Subsidization," TSE Working Papers 13-450, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Dec 2016.
  • Handle: RePEc:tse:wpaper:27777
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.tse-fr.eu/sites/default/files/TSE/documents/doc/by/rey/competitive.pdf
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Berg, Sanford V. & Weisman, Dennis L., 1992. "A guide to cross- subsidization and price predation : Ten myths," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 447-459, August.
    2. Rey, Patrick & Tirole, Jean, 2013. "Price Caps as Welfare-Enhancing Coopetition," TSE Working Papers 13-439, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Jan 2018.
    3. Zhijun Chen & Patrick Rey, 2012. "Loss Leading as an Exploitative Practice," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(7), pages 3462-3482, December.
    4. Faulhaber, Gerald R, 1975. "Cross-Subsidization: Pricing in Public Enterprises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(5), pages 966-977, December.
    5. Rey, Patrick & Tirole, Jean, 2013. "Cooperation vs. Collusion: How Essentiality Shapes Co-opetition," IDEI Working Papers 801, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    6. Paul Klemperer & A. Jorge Padilla, 1997. "Do Firms' Product Lines Include Too Many Varieties?," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 28(3), pages 472-488, Autumn.
    7. Mark Armstrong & John Vickers, 2010. "Competitive Non-linear Pricing and Bundling," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 77(1), pages 30-60.
    8. Paul R. Messinger & Chakravarthi Narasimhan, 1997. "A Model of Retail Formats Based on Consumers' Economizing on Shopping Time," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 16(1), pages 1-23.
    9. Klemperer, Paul, 1992. "Equilibrium Product Lines: Competing Head-to-Head May Be Less Competitive," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 740-755, September.
    10. Weinstein, Jonathan & Ambrus, Attila, 2008. "Price dispersion and loss leaders," Theoretical Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 3(4), December.
    11. Gijsbrechts, E. & Campo, K. & Nisol, P., 2005. "Beyond Promotion-Based Store Switching : Antecedents and Consequences of Systematic Multiple-Store Shopping," Discussion Paper 2005-76, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    12. Baye, Michael R. & Kovenock, Dan & de Vries, Casper G., 1992. "It takes two to tango: Equilibria in a model of sales," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 493-510, October.
    13. repec:oup:jcomle:v:1:y:2005:i:3:p:441-448. is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Lal, Rajiv & Matutes, Carmen, 1994. "Retail Pricing and Advertising Strategies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67(3), pages 345-370, July.
    15. DeGraba, Patrick, 2006. "The loss leader is a turkey: Targeted discounts from multi-product competitors," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 613-628, May.
    16. repec:hrv:faseco:4685158 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Rao, P. M. & Klein, Joseph A., 1992. "Antitrust issues concerning R&D cross-subsidization : A case study of US telecommunications," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 415-424, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Caprice, Stéphane & Shekhar, Shiva, 2017. "Negative consumer value and loss leading," DICE Discussion Papers 271, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    2. Jorge Florez-Acosta & Daniel Herrera-Araujo, 2017. "Multiproduct retailing and buyer power: The effects of product delisting on consumer shopping behavior," PSE Working Papers halshs-01518146, HAL.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    cross-subsidization; shopping patterns; multiproduct competition; co-opetition;

    JEL classification:

    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • L41 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Monopolization; Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tse:wpaper:27777. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/tsetofr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.