IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Spatial competition between shopping centers


  • António Brandão

    () (CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto)

  • João Correia-da-Silva

    () (CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto)

  • Joana Pinho

    () (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto)


We study competition between two shopping centers (department stores or shopping malls) located at the extremes of a linear city. In contrast with the existing literature, we do not restrict consumers to make all their purchases at a single place. We obtain this condition as an equilibrium result. In the case of competition between a shopping mall and a department store, we find that the shops at the mall, taken together, obtain a lower profit than the department store. However, the shops at the mall have no incentives to merge into a department store (both sides would lose). It is the department store that has incentives to separate itself into a shopping mall (both sides win).

Suggested Citation

  • António Brandão & João Correia-da-Silva & Joana Pinho, 2010. "Spatial competition between shopping centers," FEP Working Papers 394, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  • Handle: RePEc:por:fepwps:394

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Peter Davis, 2006. "Spatial competition in retail markets: movie theaters," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(4), pages 964-982, December.
    2. Bliss, Christopher, 1988. "A Theory of Retail Pricing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(4), pages 375-391, June.
    3. Konstantinos Serfes & Hyunho Kim, 2004. "A Location Model with Preference for Variety," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 127, Econometric Society.
    4. Economides, Nicholas & Salop, Steven C, 1992. "Competition and Integration among Complements, and Network Market Structure," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 105-123, March.
    5. Ward Hanson & R. Kipp Martin, 1990. "Optimal Bundle Pricing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(2), pages 155-174, February.
    6. Zhijun Chen & Patrick Rey, 2012. "Loss Leading as an Exploitative Practice," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(7), pages 3462-3482, December.
    7. Thill, Jean-Claude, 1992. "Spatial Duopolistic Competition with Multipurpose and Multistop Shopping," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 26(3), pages 287-304, September.
    8. USHCHEV, Philip & SLOEV, Igor & THISSE, Jacques-François & ,, 2013. "Do we go shopping downtown or in the ‘burbs’? Why not both?," CORE Discussion Papers 2013057, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    9. Fabiano Schivardi & Eliana Viviano, 2011. "Entry Barriers in Retail Trade," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(551), pages 145-170, March.
    10. Marianne Bertrand & Francis Kramarz, 2002. "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(4), pages 1369-1413.
    11. Shelegia, Sandro, 2012. "Multiproduct pricing in oligopoly," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 231-242.
    12. Stephen W. Salant & Sheldon Switzer & Robert J. Reynolds, 1983. "Losses From Horizontal Merger: The Effects of an Exogenous Change in Industry Structure on Cournot-Nash Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(2), pages 185-199.
    13. Robert Innes, 2006. "ENTRY DETERRENCE BY NON-HORIZONTAL MERGER -super-," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(3), pages 369-395, September.
    14. Anderson, Simon P. & Foros, Øystein & Kind, Hans Jarle, 2012. "Product quality, competition, and multi-purchasing," Discussion Papers 2012/9, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    15. Mark Armstrong & John Vickers, 2010. "Competitive Non-linear Pricing and Bundling," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 77(1), pages 30-60.
    16. repec:rje:randje:v:37:y:2006:i:4:p:964-982 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Gehrig, Thomas, 1998. "Competing markets," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 277-310, February.
    18. Stahl, Konrad, 1987. "Therories of urban business location," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics,in: E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 19, pages 759-820 Elsevier.
    19. d'Aspremont, C & Gabszewicz, Jean Jaskold & Thisse, J-F, 1979. "On Hotelling's "Stability in Competition"," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(5), pages 1145-1150, September.
    20. Rajiv Lal & Carmen Matutes, 1989. "Price Competition in Multimarket Duopolies," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(4), pages 516-537, Winter.
    21. Paul C. Cheshire & Christian A. L. Hilber & Ioannis Kaplanis, 2015. "Land use regulation and productivity—land matters: evidence from a UK supermarket chain," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-73.
    22. Klemperer, Paul, 1992. "Equilibrium Product Lines: Competing Head-to-Head May Be Less Competitive," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 740-755, September.
    23. Howard Smith & Donald Hay, 2005. "Streets, Malls, and Supermarkets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 29-59, March.
    24. Ting Zhu & Vishal Singh & Anthony Dukes, 2011. "Local competition, entry, and agglomeration," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 129-154, June.
    25. Lal, Rajiv & Matutes, Carmen, 1994. "Retail Pricing and Advertising Strategies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67(3), pages 345-370, July.
    26. Beggs, Alan W, 1994. "Mergers and Malls," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(4), pages 419-428, December.
    27. Griffith, Rachel & Harmgart, Heike, 2008. "Supermarkets and Planning Regulation," CEPR Discussion Papers 6713, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    28. Lahmandi-Ayed, Rim, 2010. "Spatial differentiation, divisible consumption and the pro-competitive effect of income," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 71-85, January.
    29. Matutes, Carmen & Regibeau, Pierre, 1992. "Compatibility and Bundling of Complementary Goods in a Duopoly," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 37-54, March.
    30. Laussel Didier G, 2006. "Are Manufacturers Competing through or with Supermarkets? A Theoretical Investigation," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-18, December.
    31. Eric D. Gould & B. Peter Pashigian & Canice J. Prendergast, 2005. "Contracts, Externalities, and Incentives in Shopping Malls," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(3), pages 411-422, August.
    32. Andrew Rhodes, 2015. "Multiproduct Retailing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(1), pages 360-390.
    33. Morton I. Kamien & Israel Zang, 1990. "The Limits of Monopolization Through Acquisition," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(2), pages 465-499.
    34. Eric Giraud-Héraud & Hakim Hammoudi & Mahdi Mokrane, 2003. "Multiproduct firm behaviour in a differentiated market," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 36(1), pages 41-61, February.
    35. Rajiv Lal & Ram Rao, 1997. "Supermarket Competition: The Case of Every Day Low Pricing," Marketing Science, INFORMS, pages 60-80.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Bruno De Borger & Antonio Russo, 2015. "The Political Economy of Pricing Car Access to Downtown Commercial Districts," CESifo Working Paper Series 5294, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Vitor Miguel Ribeiro & João Correia-da-Silva & Joana Resende, 2014. "Nesting Vertical and Horizontal Differentiation in Two-Sided Markets," FEP Working Papers 535, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    3. Ushchev, Philip & Sloev, Igor & Thisse, Jacques-François, 2015. "Do we go shopping downtown or in the ‘burbs?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 1-15.
    4. De Borger, Bruno & Russo, Antonio, 2017. "The political economy of pricing car access to downtown commercial districts," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 76-93.

    More about this item


    Retail organization; Multi-product firms; Horizontal differentiation; Hotelling model;

    JEL classification:

    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:por:fepwps:394. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.