IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/trt/disawp/1006.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Vertical Integration and Efficiency: an application to the Italian Machine Tool Industry

Author

Listed:
  • Fabio Pieri
  • Enrico Zaninotto

    () (DISA, Faculty of Economics, Trento University)

Abstract

This paper analyzes the relationship between firm efficiency and vertical integration in the Italian machine tool (MT) industry. A theoretical model of entry and competition within an industry has been set up. In this model firms can choose either to be vertically integrated or not: the most efficientfirms self-select in being vertically integrated, while less efficientfirms prefer a disintegrated structure and they both coexist in equilibrium. In the second part of the paper the relationship between efficiency and vertical integration has been tested using a stochastic frontier framework in an novel panel dataset including around 500 MT builders. The theoretical prediction is confirmed: outsourcing seems a rational choice for less efficient firms to make positive operating profits and stay in the market; on the other hand, more efficient firms exploit their efficiency advantage to control a greater part of the production chain, possibly benefiting from greater coordination among different phases and tailored intermediate inputs.

Suggested Citation

  • Fabio Pieri & Enrico Zaninotto, 2010. "Vertical Integration and Efficiency: an application to the Italian Machine Tool Industry," DISA Working Papers 1006, Department of Computer and Management Sciences, University of Trento, Italy, revised 24 Nov 2010.
  • Handle: RePEc:trt:disawp:1006
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.unitn.it/files/download/10528/06.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sourafel Girma & Holger Görg, 2004. "Outsourcing, Foreign Ownership, and Productivity: Evidence from UK Establishment-level Data," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(5), pages 817-832, November.
    2. Holger Görg & Aoife Hanley & Eric Strobl, 2008. "Productivity effects of international outsourcing: evidence from plant-level data," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 41(2), pages 670-688, May.
    3. Rolfo Secondo, 1998. "L'industria italiana della meccanica strumentale di fronte alla globalizzazione: opportunità e limiti," L'industria, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 4, pages 881-894.
    4. Caudill, Steven B. & Ford, Jon M., 1993. "Biases in frontier estimation due to heteroscedasticity," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 17-20.
    5. Rolfo Secondo & Calabrese Giuseppe, 2006. "Struttura industriale e profili di competitività nella meccanica strumentale," L'industria, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 4, pages 603-622.
    6. Chad Syverson, 2011. "What Determines Productivity?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 49(2), pages 326-365, June.
    7. Christian Ritter & Léopold Simar, 1997. "Pitfalls of Normal-Gamma Stochastic Frontier Models," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 8(2), pages 167-182, May.
    8. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2005. "Outsourcing in a Global Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(1), pages 135-159.
    9. M. Diaz & Rosario Sanchez, 2008. "Firm size and productivity in Spain: a stochastic frontier analysis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 315-323, March.
    10. Tasneem Chipty, 2001. "Vertical Integration, Market Foreclosure, and Consumer Welfare in the Cable Television Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(3), pages 428-453, June.
    11. Eric Bartelsman & Stefano Scarpetta & Fabiano Schivardi, 2005. "Comparative analysis of firm demographics and survival: evidence from micro-level sources in OECD countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(3), pages 365-391, June.
    12. Jacques Mairesse & Jordi Jaumandreu, 2005. "Panel-data Estimates of the Production Function and the Revenue Function: What Difference Does It Make?," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 107(4), pages 651-672, December.
    13. Hung-jen Wang & Peter Schmidt, 2002. "One-Step and Two-Step Estimation of the Effects of Exogenous Variables on Technical Efficiency Levels," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 129-144, September.
    14. Roberto Antonietti & Giulio Cainelli, 2008. "Production Outsourcing, Organizational Governance and Firm’s Technological Performance: Evidence from Italy," The IUP Journal of Managerial Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(1), pages 51-69, February.
    15. Sasan Bakhtiari, 2011. "Size Evolution and Outsourcing: Theory and Evidence from Australian Manufacturing," Discussion Papers 2012-08, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.
    16. Pol Antras & Elhanan Helpman, 2004. "Global Sourcing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(3), pages 552-580, June.
    17. Kodde, David A & Palm, Franz C, 1986. "Wald Criteria for Jointly Testing Equality and Inequality Restriction s," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(5), pages 1243-1248, September.
    18. Kerkvliet, Joe, 1991. "Efficiency and Vertical Integration: The Case of Mine-Mouth Electric Generating Plants," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(5), pages 467-482, September.
    19. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 691-719, August.
    20. Erol Taymaz, 2005. "Are Small Firms Really Less Productive?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 429-445, December.
    21. Francine Lafontaine & Margaret Slade, 2007. "Vertical Integration and Firm Boundaries: The Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(3), pages 629-685, September.
    22. Abraham, Katharine G & Taylor, Susan K, 1996. "Firms' Use of Outside Contractors: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(3), pages 394-424, July.
    23. Antonio Alvarez & Christine Amsler & Luis Orea & Peter Schmidt, 2006. "Interpreting and Testing the Scaling Property in Models where Inefficiency Depends on Firm Characteristics," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 25(3), pages 201-212, June.
    24. Battese, G E & Coelli, T J, 1995. "A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production Function for Panel Data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 325-332.
    25. Secondo Rolfo, 1993. "The Italian Machine Tool Industry," CERIS Working Paper 199304, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY -NOW- Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY.
    26. Greene, William, 2005. "Reconsidering heterogeneity in panel data estimators of the stochastic frontier model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(2), pages 269-303, June.
    27. Davide Vannoni, 1994. "Perche' Le Matrici Intersettoriali Per Misurare L'Integrazione Verticale ?," CERIS Working Paper 199403, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY -NOW- Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY.
    28. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 461-488, June.
    29. Lieberman, Marvin B, 1991. "Determinants of Vertical Integration: An Empirical Test," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(5), pages 451-466, September.
    30. Awudu Abdulai & Hendrik Tietje, 2007. "Estimating technical efficiency under unobserved heterogeneity with stochastic frontier models: application to northern German dairy farms," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 34(3), pages 393-416, September.
    31. Karsten Bjerring Olsen, 2006. "Productivity Impacts of Offshoring and Outsourcing: A Review," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2006/1, OECD Publishing.
    32. Jondrow, James & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Materov, Ivan S. & Schmidt, Peter, 1982. "On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 233-238, August.
    33. Kumbhakar, Subal C., 1990. "Production frontiers, panel data, and time-varying technical inefficiency," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 201-211.
    34. repec:hrv:faseco:4784029 is not listed on IDEAS
    35. Almas Heshmati, 2003. "Productivity Growth, Efficiency and Outsourcing in Manufacturing and Service Industries," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(1), pages 79-112, February.
    36. Stefano Federico, 2010. "Outsourcing versus Integration at Home or Abroad," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 742, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    37. Lancaster, Tony, 2000. "The incidental parameter problem since 1948," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 391-413, April.
    38. Walter Elberfeld, 2001. "Explaining Intraindustry Differences in the Extent of Vertical Integration," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 157(3), pages 465-477, September.
    39. Tomiura, Eiichi, 2007. "Foreign outsourcing, exporting, and FDI: A productivity comparison at the firm level," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 113-127, May.
    40. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
    41. Caudill, Steven B & Ford, Jon M & Gropper, Daniel M, 1995. "Frontier Estimation and Firm-Specific Inefficiency Measures in the Presence of Heteroscedasticity," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 13(1), pages 105-111, January.
    42. Giovanni Dosi & Marco Grazzi & Chiara Tomasi & Alessandro Zeli, 2010. "Turbulence underneath the big calm? Exploring the micro-evidence behind the flat trend of manufacturing productivity in Italy," LEM Papers Series 2010/03, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    43. Stefano Federico, 2010. "Outsourcing versus integration at home or abroad and firm heterogeneity," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 47-63, February.
    44. M. A. Adelman, 1955. "Concept and Statistical Measurement of Vertical Integration," NBER Chapters,in: Business Concentration and Price Policy, pages 281-330 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    45. Katayama, Hajime & Lu, Shihua & Tybout, James R., 2009. "Firm-level productivity studies: Illusions and a solution," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 403-413, May.
    46. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Devicienti, Francesco & Manello, Alessandro & Vannoni, Davide, 2017. "Technical efficiency, unions and decentralized labor contracts," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 260(3), pages 1129-1141.
    2. Giorgia Giovannetti & Enrico Marvasi & Marco Sanfilippo, 2015. "Supply chains and the internationalization of small firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(4), pages 845-865, April.
    3. Chiara Franco & Fabio Pieri & Francesco Venturini, 2016. "Product market regulation and innovation efficiency," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 299-315, June.
    4. Sasan Bakhtiari, 2015. "Productivity, outsourcing and exit: the case of Australian manufacturing," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 425-447, February.
    5. Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia & Bergtold, Jason & Featherstone, Allen & Caldas, Marcellus & Granco, Gabriel, 2017. "Does Vertical Integration Increase Efficiency? A Look at Ethanol Plants in the Center-South of Brazil," 2017 Annual Meeting, February 4-7, 2017, Mobile, Alabama 252777, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    6. Fabio Pieri, 2015. "Vertical organization of production and firm growth behavior," Working Papers 1508, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
    7. Justin Bem & Pierre Joubert Nguetse Tegoum & Tatiana Morel Samo Tcheeko & Jacksone Essoh, 2013. "Efficience de production du secteur informel non-agricole et réduction de la pauvreté au Cameroun," Working Papers PMMA 2013-06, PEP-PMMA.
    8. Cherkasova, Viktoria & Molchanov, Dmitriy & Cherkasova, Elizaveta, 2014. "The impact of vertical integration on the efficiency of companies in the emerging capital markets," Economic Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, pages 60-78.
    9. Fabio Pieri, 2016. "Vertical organization of production and firm growth," DEM Working Papers 2016/01, Department of Economics and Management.
    10. Alessandro Manello & Giuseppe Calabrese & Piercarlo Frigero, "undated". "Explaining the efficiency of Italian car suppliers during the crisis," CERIS Working Paper 201406, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY -NOW- Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth - Moncalieri (TO) ITALY.
    11. Bakhtiari Sasan, 2016. "Assortative Outsourcing with Exit," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 16(1), pages 119-142, January.
    12. Alessandro Manello & Giuseppe G. Calabrese & Piercarlo Frigero, 2016. "Technical efficiency and productivity growth along the automotive value chain: evidence from Italy," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(2), pages 245-259.
    13. Giorgia Giovannetti & Enrico Marvasi & Marco Sanfilippo, 2013. "Supply Chains and the Internalization of SMEs: Evidence from Italy," Working Papers - Economics wp2013_30.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
    14. Sasan Bakhtiari, 2013. "Firm Size Evolution and Outsourcing," Discussion Papers 2013-07, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    vertical integration; technical efficiency; firm heterogeneity; heteroskedastic frontier model;

    JEL classification:

    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • L23 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Organization of Production
    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • L64 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Other Machinery; Business Equipment; Armaments

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:trt:disawp:1006. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roberto Gabriele). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ditreit.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.