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Outsourcing and Offshoring in Canada

  • Gu, Wulong
  • Baldwin, John R.

This paper has three main objectives. First, it presents the long-term trends in outsourcing and offshoring across Canadian industries. Second, it examines the relationship between offshoring and changes in trade patterns at the industry level. It focuses on two major drivers that some have suggested are behind the recent trends toward offshoring: globalization and technological changes associated with information and communications technologies. Third, the paper examines the economic impact of offshoring by investigating the relationship between the extent of offshoring and productivity growth, shifts to high value-added activities and changes in labour markets.

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Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch in its series Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series with number 2008055e.

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Date of creation: 23 May 2008
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Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp5e:2008055e
Contact details of provider: Postal: Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0T6
Web page: http://www.statcan.gc.ca

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  1. Ann Bartel & Saul Lach & Nachum Sicherman, 2005. "Outsourcing and Technological Change," NBER Working Papers 11158, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. N. Gregory Mankiw & Phillip Swagel, 2006. "The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2120, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  3. Donald Siegel & Zvi Griliches, 1992. "Purchased Services, Outsourcing, Computers, and Productivity in Manufacturing," NBER Chapters, in: Output Measurement in the Service Sectors, pages 429-460 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Mari Sako, 2006. "Outsourcing and Offshoring: Implications for Productivity of Business Services," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(4), pages 499-512, Winter.
  5. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1996. "Globalization, Outsourcing, and Wage Inequality," NBER Working Papers 5424, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Erwin Diewert, 2005. "Progress in Service Sector Productivity Measurement: Review Article on "Productivity in the U.S. Services Sector: New Sources of Economic Growth"," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 11, pages 57-69, Fall.
  7. Tang, Jianmin & Baldwin, John R. & Jarmin , Ron S., 2002. "The Trend to Smaller Producers in Manufacturing: A Canada/U.S. Comparison," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2002003e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
  8. Robert C. Feenstra, . "Integration Of Trade And Disintegration Of Production In The Global Economy," Department of Economics 98-06, California Davis - Department of Economics.
  9. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry & Ries, John, 2009. "How remote is the offshoring threat?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 429-444, May.
  10. John R. Baldwin & Wulong Gu, 2004. "Trade Liberalization: Export-market Participation, Productivity Growth, and Innovation," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 372-392, Autumn.
  11. Pol Antràs & Elhanan Helpman, 2003. "Global Sourcing," NBER Working Papers 10082, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Gorg, Holger & Hanley, Aoife, 2005. "International outsourcing and productivity: evidence from the Irish electronics industry," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 255-269, August.
  13. Catherine L. Mann, 2003. "Globalization of IT Services and White Collar Jobs: The Next Wave of Productivity Growth," Policy Briefs PB03-11, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  14. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2006. "The rise of offshoring: it's not wine for cloth anymore," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 59-102.
  15. C. Alan Garner, 2004. "Offshoring in the service sector : economic impact and policy issues," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q III, pages 5-37.
  16. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 2000. "Exporting and Productivity," Working Papers 00-07, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  17. Robert Feenstra & Gordon Hanson, 2001. "Global Production Sharing and Rising Inequality: A Survey of Trade and Wages," NBER Working Papers 8372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Head, Keith & Ries, John, 2002. "Offshore production and skill upgrading by Japanese manufacturing firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 81-105, October.
  19. Beiling Yan, 2006. "Demand for skills in Canada: the role of foreign outsourcing and information-communication technology," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 39(1), pages 53-67, February.
  20. George J. Stigler, 1951. "The Division of Labor is Limited by the Extent of the Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59, pages 185.
  21. Sourafel Girma & Holger Görg, 2003. "Outsourcing, Foreign Ownership and Productivity: Evidence from UK Establishment Level Data," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 361, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  22. Katz, L.F. & Murphy, K.M., 1991. "Changes in Relative Wages, 1963-1987: Supply and Demand Factors," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1580, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  23. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1999. "The Impact Of Outsourcing And High-Technology Capital On Wages: Estimates For The United States, 1979-1990," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(3), pages 907-940, August.
  24. Burrows, Sean & Beckstead, Desmond & Gellatly, Guy, 2007. "New Economy: Using National Accounting Architecture to Estimate the Size of the High-technology Economy," The Canadian Economy in Transition 2007015e, Statistics Canada, Economic Analysis.
  25. John Baldwin & Wulong Gu, 2003. "Export-market participation and productivity performance in Canadian manufacturing," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 36(3), pages 634-657, August.
  26. Noel Gaston & Daniel Trefler, 1994. "The Role of International Trade and Trade Policy in the Labour Markets of Canada and the United States," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(1), pages 45-62, 01.
  27. W.E. Diewert & Catherine J. Morrison, 1985. "Adjusting Output and Productivity Indexes for Changes in the Terms of Trade," NBER Working Papers 1564, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Fixler, Dennis J. & Siegel, Donald, 1999. "Outsourcing and productivity growth in services," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 177-194, June.
  29. Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2005. "Service offshoring, Productivity, and Employment: Evidence From the United States," IMF Working Papers 05/238, International Monetary Fund.
  30. Gu, Wulong & Baldwin, John R., 2007. "Investment and Long-term Productivity Growth in the Canadian Business Sector, 1961 to 2002," The Canadian Productivity Review 2007006e, Statistics Canada, Economic Analysis.
  31. repec:hrv:faseco:4784029 is not listed on IDEAS
  32. Gu, Wulong & Baldwin, John R. & Yan, Beiling, 2007. "User Guide for Statistics Canada's Annual Multifactor Productivity Program," The Canadian Productivity Review 2007014e, Statistics Canada, Economic Analysis.
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