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The Relationship between Output and Unemployment with Efficiency Wages

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  • Jim Malley
  • Hassan Molana

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Abstract

We construct a stylised model of the supply side with goods and labour market imperfections to show that an economy can rationally operate at an inefficient, or ‘low-effort’, state in which the relationship between output and unemployment is positive. We examine data from the G7 countries over 1960-2001 and find that only German data strongly favour a persistent negative relationship between the level of output and rate of unemployment. The consequence of this is that circumstances exist in which market imperfections could pose serious obstacles to the smooth working of expansionary and/or stabilization policies and a positive demand shock might have adverse effects on employment.

Suggested Citation

  • Jim Malley & Hassan Molana, 2006. " The Relationship between Output and Unemployment with Efficiency Wages," CDMA Conference Paper Series 0607, Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis.
  • Handle: RePEc:san:cdmacp:0607
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    File URL: https://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/CDMA/papers/cp0607.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Gordon, Robert J, 1995. "Is There a Trade-off between Unemployment and Productivity Growth?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1159, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Richard Disney & Jonathan Haskel & Ylva Heden, 2003. "Restructuring and productivity growth in uk manufacturing," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(489), pages 666-694, July.
    3. Malley, Jim & Moutos, Thomas, 2001. " Capital Accumulation and Unemployment: A Tale of Two "Continents."," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 103(1), pages 79-99, March.
    4. Strobl, Eric & Walsh, Frank, 2007. "Estimating the shirking model with variable effort," Labour Economics, Elsevier, pages 623-637.
    5. Francesco Daveri & Guido Tabellini, 2000. "Unemployment, growth and taxation in industrial countries," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 47-104, April.
    6. Acemoglu, Daron & Shimer, Robert, 2000. "Productivity gains from unemployment insurance," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(7), pages 1195-1224, June.
    7. Carlin, Wendy & Soskice, David, 2005. "Macroeconomics: Imperfections, Institutions, and Policies," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198776222.
    8. Alison L. Booth & Yu-Fu Chen & Gylfi Zoega, 2002. "Hiring and Firing: A Tale of Two Thresholds," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(2), pages 217-248, Part.
    9. Blanchard, Olivier, 1998. "Revisiting European Unemployment : Unemployment, Capital Accumulation and Factor Prices," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number GLS28.
    10. Jim Malley & Hassan Molana, 2000. "Monopolistic Competition, Efficiency Wages and Perverse Effects of Demand Shock," Working Papers 2000_20, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow, revised Feb 2001.
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    Cited by:

    1. alamro, Hassan & Al-dalaien, Qusay, 2014. "Modeling the relationship between GDP and unemployment for Okun’s law specific to Jordan," MPRA Paper 55302, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Efficiency wages; effort supply; Kalman filter; monopolistic competition; Okun’s law.;

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • J41 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Labor Contracts
    • H3 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

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