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Efficiency Wages, Unemployment and Macroeconomic Policy

  • Jim Malley
  • Hassan Molana

We provide empirical evidence from a number of European countries, which shows that unemployment and output are positively related when unemployment is low and inversely related when unemployment is high. We then construct a stylised macro-model with goods and labour market imperfections to show that the economy can rationally operate at an inefficient equilibrium in the neighbourhood of which the relationship between output and unemployment is positive. Our results suggest that circumstances exist in which market imperfections pose serious obstacles to the smooth working of expansionary and/or stabilization policies whose final aim is to improve welfare.

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Paper provided by Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow in its series Working Papers with number 2002_3.

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Date of creation: Mar 2002
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Handle: RePEc:gla:glaewp:2002_3
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  8. Jim Malley & Thomas Moutos, . "Capital Accumulation and Unemployment: A Tale of Two 'Continents'," Working Papers 9820, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
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  11. Agenor, Pierre-Richard & Aizenman, Joshua, 1999. "Macroeconomic adjustment with segmented labor markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 277-296, April.
  12. Hassan Molana & Junxi Zhang, 1999. "Market Structure and Fiscal Policy Effectiveness," Dundee Discussion Papers in Economics 104, Economic Studies, University of Dundee.
  13. Rebitzer, James B. & Taylor, Lowell J., 1995. "The consequences of minimum wage laws Some new theoretical ideas," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 245-255, February.
  14. Thomas Moutos, 1989. "Turnover Costs, Unemployment and Macroeconomic Policies," Working Papers Series 89/5, University of Stirling, Division of Economics.
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  16. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1992. "A Model of Growth Through Creative Destruction," Scholarly Articles 12490578, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  17. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1994. "Growth and Unemployment," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(3), pages 477-94, July.
  18. Campbell leith & Chol-Won Li, 2001. "Unemployment and the Productivity Slowdown: A Labour Supply Perspective," Working Papers 2001_13, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  19. Schmidt-Sorensen, Jan Beyer, 1990. "The equilibrium effort-wage elasticity in efficiency-wage models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 365-369, April.
  20. Francesco Daveri & Guido Tabellini, 2000. "Unemployment, growth and taxation in industrial countries," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 15(30), pages 47-104, 04.
  21. Startz, Richard, 1989. "Monopolistic Competition as a Foundation for Keynesian Macroeconomic Models," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(4), pages 737-52, November.
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  23. Molana, Hassan & Moutos, Thomas, 1992. "A Note on Taxation, Imperfect Competition and the Balanced Budget Multiplier," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(1), pages 68-74, January.
  24. Reinhorn, Leslie J., 1998. "Imperfect competition, the Keynesian cross, and optimal fiscal policy," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 331-337, March.
  25. Barry, Frank & Devereux, Michael B, 1995. "The 'Expansionary Fiscal Contraction' Hypothesis: A Neo-Keynesian Analysis," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(2), pages 249-64, April.
  26. Heijdra, Ben J & van der Ploeg, Frederick, 1996. "Keynesian Multipliers and the Cost of Public Funds under Monopolistic Competition," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(438), pages 1284-96, September.
  27. Olivier Blanchard, 1998. "Revisiting European Unemployment: Unemployment, Capital Accumulation, and Factor Prices," NBER Working Papers 6566, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Shapiro, Carl & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1984. "Equilibrium Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 433-44, June.
  29. Dixon, Huw & Lawler, Phillip, 1996. " Imperfect Competition and the Fiscal Multiplier," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 98(2), pages 219-31, June.
  30. Schmidt-Sorensen, Jan Beyer, 1991. "An Efficiency-Wage-Hours Model and Shorter Working Hours," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 38(2), pages 113-31, May.
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