IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Implementing Value-Added Models of School Assessment


  • Maciej Jakubowski


This paper considers value-added models of school assessment and their implementation in Poland. Value-added estimates can be very helpful for schools and policy makers who need a reliable way to control teaching effectiveness, or for parents who need information about school quality in their area. However, their usefulness depends on several statistical issues and specific decisions made during implementation. The paper discusses several value-added models and describes details of the solution implemented in Poland. Statistical problems are discussed according to their policy relevance. It is shown that what bothers statisticians is less important in practice than several problems encountered when one wants to apply these models to a policy relevant context. Problems of proper regression specification, omitted variables bias, and measurement error are discussed, but the ways value-added estimates could be published and used as policy evaluation tools are also presented. All this problems are discussed from a practical point of view using three years of experience in implementation of these methods in Poland.

Suggested Citation

  • Maciej Jakubowski, 2008. "Implementing Value-Added Models of School Assessment," RSCAS Working Papers 2008/06, European University Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:rsc:rsceui:2008/06

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ladd, Helen F. & Walsh, Randall P., 2002. "Implementing value-added measures of school effectiveness: getting the incentives right," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1-17, February.
    2. Meyer, Robert H., 1997. "Value-added indicators of school performance: A primer," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 283-301, June.
    3. Paul O'Brien & Wojciech Paczynski, 2006. "Poland's Education and Training: Boosting and Adapting Human Capital," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 495, OECD Publishing.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Luca Flóra Drucker & Daniel Horn, 2016. "Decreased tracking, increased earning: Evidence from the comprehensive Polish educational reform of 1999," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 1602, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies.
    2. Horn, Dániel & Drucker, Luca Flóra, 2016. "Kisebb szelekció - nagyobb kereset. Az 1999-es lengyel oktatási reform hatásának vizsgálata [Narrower selection, wider demand. Examining the effects of the 1999 Polish education reform]," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(9), pages 944-965.
    3. Maciej Jakubowski, 2009. "Teaching quality and decentralization," Working Papers 2009-05, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
    4. Zurab Abramishvili & David Tsirekidze, 2019. "Value Added of Universities: Evidence From Georgia," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 39(3), pages 2184-2191.
    5. Garritt L. Page & Ernesto San Martín & Javiera Orellana & Jorge González, 2017. "Exploring complete school effectiveness via quantile value added," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 180(1), pages 315-340, January.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. William C. Horrace & Michah W. Rothbart & Yi Yang, 2020. "Technical Efficiency of Public Middle Schools in New York City," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 235, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    2. Erwin Ooghe & Erik Schokkaert, 2016. "School accountability: can we reward schools and avoid pupil selection?," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 46(2), pages 359-387, February.
    3. Steven M. Glazerman & Liz Potamites, "undated". "False Performance Gains: A Critique of Successive Cohort Indicators," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 514ff0e4bc794e56804cafcc9, Mathematica Policy Research.
    4. Susanna Loeb & Michael S. Christian & Heather Hough & Robert H. Meyer & Andrew B. Rice & Martin R. West, 2019. "School Differences in Social–Emotional Learning Gains: Findings From the First Large-Scale Panel Survey of Students," Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, , vol. 44(5), pages 507-542, October.
    5. Yunker, James A., 2005. "The dubious utility of the value-added concept in higher education: the case of accounting," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 355-367, June.
    6. Travitzki, Rodrigo & Calero, Jorge & Boto, Carlota, 2014. "¿Qué información proporciona el Examen Nacional de Enseñanza Media (enem) a la sociedad brasileña?," Revista CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), August.
    7. Aedin Doris & Donal O'Neill & Olive Sweetman, 2019. "Good Schools or Good Students? The Importance of Selectivity for School Rankings," Economics Department Working Paper Series n293-19.pdf, Department of Economics, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
    8. Tahir Andrabi & Jishnu Das & Asim Ijaz Khwaja & Tristan Zajonc, 2011. "Do Value-Added Estimates Add Value? Accounting for Learning Dynamics," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 29-54, July.
    9. Brasington, D. M., 2003. "The supply of public school quality," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 367-377, August.
    10. George M. Holmes, "undated". "Teaching To The Test: Triage in the Classroom," Working Papers 0110, East Carolina University, Department of Economics.
    11. David Brasington & Don Haurin, 2005. "Capitalization of Parent, School, and Peer Group Components of School Quality into House Price," Departmental Working Papers 2005-04, Department of Economics, Louisiana State University.
    12. Temple, Judy A., 1998. "Recent Clinton Urban Education Initiatives and the Role of School Quality in Metropolitan Finance," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 51(n. 3), pages 517-29, September.
    13. Arpino, Bruno & Varriale, Roberta, 2009. "Assessing the quality of institutions’ rankings obtained through multilevel linear regression models," MPRA Paper 19873, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. M. Portela & A. Camanho & A. Keshvari, 2013. "Assessing the evolution of school performance and value-added: trends over four years," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 1-14, February.
    15. Alejandro Arenas Alzate, 2021. "Mejores colegios en Colombia: efecto de las condiciones socioeconómicas sobre el desempeño escolar," Documentos de Trabajo CIEF 019829, Universidad EAFIT.
    16. Agasisti, Tommaso & Longobardi, Sergio, 2014. "Inequality in education: Can Italian disadvantaged students close the gap?," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 8-20.
    17. Emilia Del Bono & Marco Francesconi & Yvonne Kelly & Amanda Sacker, 2016. "Early Maternal Time Investment and Early Child Outcomes," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 126(596), pages 96-135, October.
    18. Ludger Wößmann, 2006. "Bildungspolitische Lehren aus den internationalen Schülertests: Wettbewerb, Autonomie und externe Leistungsüberprüfung," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7(3), pages 417-444, August.
    19. repec:mpr:mprres:8135 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Susana Faria & Maria Conceição Portela, 2016. "Student Performance in Mathematics using PISA-2009 data for Portugal," Working Papers de Gestão (Management Working Papers) 01, Católica Porto Business School, Universidade Católica Portuguesa.
    21. Henry W. KINNUCAN & Martin D. SMITH & Yuqing ZHENG & Jose R. LLANES, 2012. "The Effects of No Child Left Behind on Student Performance in Alabama’s Rural Schools," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 12(1), pages 5-24.

    More about this item


    education; school assessment; school effectiveness; value-added models;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rsc:rsceui:2008/06. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: RSCAS web unit (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.