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Battery Sizing for Serial Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: A Model-Based Economic Analysis for Germany

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  • Ernst, Christian-Simon

    () (Institut für Kraftfahrzeuge (ika), RWTH Aachen University)

  • Hackbarth, André

    () (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN))

  • Madlener, Reinhard

    () (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN))

  • Lunz, Benedikt

    () (E.ON Energy Research Center, Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), RWTH Aachen University)

  • Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    () (E.ON Energy Research Center, Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), RWTH Aachen University)

  • Eckstein, Lutz

    () (Institut für Kraftfahrzeuge (ika), RWTH Aachen University)

Abstract

The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the pure electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortization time of a PHEV also depends on the recharging strategy (once a day, once a night, after each trip), the battery size as well as the battery costs. We find that PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery and at current lithium-ion battery prices reach the break-even point after about six years (five years when using the lower night-time electricity tariffs). With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer. Even with the small battery size and assuming the EU-15 electricity mix, a PHEV is found to emit only around 60% of the CO2 emissions of a comparable conventional car. Thus, with the PHEV concept a cost-effective introduction of electric mobility and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle can be reached.

Suggested Citation

  • Ernst, Christian-Simon & Hackbarth, André & Madlener, Reinhard & Lunz, Benedikt & Sauer, Dirk Uwe & Eckstein, Lutz, 2010. "Battery Sizing for Serial Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: A Model-Based Economic Analysis for Germany," FCN Working Papers 14/2010, E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), revised Jun 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:fcnwpa:2010_014
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Harmsen-van Hout, Marjolein J.W. & Dellaert, Benedict G.C. & Herings, P. Jean-Jacques, 2008. "Behavorial Effects in Individual Decisions of Network Formation," Research Memorandum 019, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
    2. Harmsen - van Hout, Marjolein J.W. & Herings, P. Jean-Jacques & Dellaert ,Benedict G.C., 2006. "The Structure of Online Consumer Communication Networks," Research Memorandum 028, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
    3. Lang, Joachim & Madlener, Reinhard, 2010. "Relevance of Risk Capital and Margining for the Valuation of Power Plants: Cash Requirements for Credit Risk Mitigation," FCN Working Papers 1/2010, E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN).
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    Cited by:

    1. Bernstein, Ronald & Madlener, Reinhard, 2011. "Responsiveness of Residential Electricity Demand in OECD Countries: A Panel Cointegation and Causality Analysis," FCN Working Papers 8/2011, E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN).
    2. Michelsen, Carl Christian & Madlener, Reinhard, 2011. "Homeowners' Preferences for Adopting Residential Heating Systems: A Discrete Choice Analysis for Germany," FCN Working Papers 9/2011, E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN).
    3. Kraas, Birk & Schroedter-Homscheidt, Marion & Pulvermüller, Benedikt & Madlener, Reinhard, 2011. "Economic Assessment of a Concentrating Solar Power Forecasting System for Participation in the Spanish Electricity Market," FCN Working Papers 12/2011, E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN).
    4. Redelbach, Martin & Özdemir, Enver Doruk & Friedrich, Horst E., 2014. "Optimizing battery sizes of plug-in hybrid and extended range electric vehicles for different user types," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 158-168.

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    Keywords

    PHEV; e-mobility; total cost of ownership;

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