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The Spoils of War: Trade Shocks during WWI and Spain’s Regional Development

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  • Simon Fuchs

    (Toulouse School of Economics)

Abstract

This paper analyzes to what extent labor market frictions limit the gains from market integration. I use an external demand shock to the Spanish economy as a natural experiment to identify and quantify the effect of labor mobility costs on Spain’s development. Using newly digitized trade and labor market data, I show that during WWI (1914-1918) a large, temporary and sectorally heterogeneous de- mand shock emanated from belligerent countries, as a result of which Spain ex- panded its manufacturing employment and exports, while income growth between the north and south in Spain diverged. To quantify and analyse the role of mo- bility costs I build and estimate a multi-sector economic geography model that al- lows for sectoral and spatial mobility costs. Spatial mobility costs dominated with an estimated 80% of reallocation of labor taking place within rather than between provinces. I use the estimated model to calculate counterfactuals to examine the effects of and interaction between output and input market integration: Comparing to the non-shock counterfactual I find that the WWI-shock increased manufactur- ing employment by 10%, and induced highly uneven spatial development with the north growing 27% faster. The shock constituted a 6% increase in market size and increased aggregate real incomes by 20%. Lowering mobility costs by 10% increases real income gains from the WWI-shock by an additional 3%, and exceeds gains in the non-shock scenario, suggesting that labor market integration and output market integration are complements.

Suggested Citation

  • Simon Fuchs, 2018. "The Spoils of War: Trade Shocks during WWI and Spain’s Regional Development," 2018 Meeting Papers 1172, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed018:1172
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. Konstantin Kucheryavyy & Gary Lyn & Andrés Rodríguez-Clare, 2016. "Grounded by Gravity: A Well-Behaved Trade Model with Industry-Level Economies of Scale," NBER Working Papers 22484, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    5. Rodrigo Adao & Arnaud Costinot & Dave Donaldson, 2017. "Nonparametric Counterfactual Predictions in Neoclassical Models of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(3), pages 633-689, March.
    6. W. Walker Hanlon, 2014. "Temporary Shocks and Persistent Effects in the Urban System: Evidence from British Cities after the U.S. Civil War," NBER Working Papers 20471, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Daron Acemoglu & David H. Autor & David Lyle, 2004. "Women, War, and Wages: The Effect of Female Labor Supply on the Wage Structure at Midcentury," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(3), pages 497-551, June.
    8. Rafael Dix-Carneiro & Brian K. Kovak, 2017. "Trade Liberalization and Regional Dynamics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(10), pages 2908-2946, October.
    9. Javier Silvestre & María Isabel Ayuda & Vicente Pinilla, 2015. "The occupational attainment of migrants and natives in Barcelona, 1930," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 68(3), pages 985-1015, August.
    10. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum, 2002. "Technology, Geography, and Trade," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(5), pages 1741-1779, September.
    11. Krugman, Paul R., 1979. "Increasing returns, monopolistic competition, and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 469-479, November.
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