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Money Creation in Russia: Does the Money Multiplier Exist?

Author

Listed:
  • Vadim O. Grishchenko

    (Research and Forecasting Department, Bank of Russia)

  • Alexander Mihailov

    (Department of Economics, University of Reading)

  • Vasily N. Tkachev

    (International Finance Department, Moscow State University of International Relations (MGIMO- University))

Abstract

For decades, the monetary economics literature has considered multiple deposit expansion via the money multiplier logic as empirically corroborated. However, the developments witnessed in advanced economies since the Global Financial Crisis challenged this settled view, and central banks as well as the Bank for International Settlements were among the first to openly reconsider it. In this paper, we revisit the issue empirically, but in a way aligned with a 'narrative' context of the evolving institutional frameworks for banking activities and monetary policy that profoundly and ultimately shape it out. Using a vector autoregression model estimated on Russian monthly data over two subsamples, 2005-2012 and 2012-2019, we find robust evidence that, while multiple deposit expansion may have existed in underdeveloped financial systems in the past, where the volume of lending was limited by the supply of bank reserves, nowadays lending is constrained mainly by the demand for credit. The key explanations we propose are: the rapid rise of money markets in the 20th- 21st centuries, the unlimited access to central bank liquidity provision facilities, and the evolution of bank management from the 'golden rule' of banking, where liquidity gaps aim at zero, to Asset and Liability Management, where banks flexibly manage liquidity gaps. Our results robustly show that the influence on real money balances of money supply factors, such as bank reserve requirements and the real monetary base, has become statistically insignificant over the recent decade in Russia, while that of money demand factors, such as the nominal interest rate, has remained significant and negative, which is consistent with the economic intuition we have suggested.

Suggested Citation

  • Vadim O. Grishchenko & Alexander Mihailov & Vasily N. Tkachev, 2021. "Money Creation in Russia: Does the Money Multiplier Exist?," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2021-15, Department of Economics, University of Reading.
  • Handle: RePEc:rdg:emxxdp:em-dp2021-15
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    File URL: http://www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/economics/emdp202115.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ostapenko, V. & Buglevsky, E., 2022. "Money supply in the history of macroeconomic thought: 50 shades of endogeneity," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 55(3), pages 156-176.
    2. Zinn, Jesse Aaron, 2022. "The Money Multiplier and Other Measures of Financial Sector Performance," SocArXiv zusqa, Center for Open Science.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    multiple deposit expansion; money multiplier; supply of bank reserves; demand for credit; evolution of bank management; monetary policy; Russia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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