IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/97075.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Trade Liberalization Policies and Renewable Energy Transition in Low and Middle-Income Countries? An Instrumental Variable Approach

Author

Listed:
  • Murshed, Muntasir

Abstract

A transition from the traditional dependence on use of non-renewable energy to the relatively environment-friendly renewable energy resources has been a key national agenda of governments across the globe. Keeping the environmental degradation and sustainable supply of energy into cognisance, it is pertinent to address the factors that possibly facilitate the renewable energy transitions worldwide. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to empirically analyse the compatibility of national trade liberalization policies with regards to promoting greater use of renewable energy across 71 low, lower-middle and upper-middle countries from South Asia, East Asia, Pacific, Central Asia, Latin America, Caribbean islands and Sub-Saharan Africa. Annual panel data between 2000 and 2017 is incorporated into the regression analyses using the Instrumental Variable Two-Stage Least Squares (IV-2SLS) and the Instrumental Variable Random Effects Generalized Least Squares (IV-RE-GLS) panel data estimators. The results indicate that greater openness to trade stimulates renewable energy consumption and also enhances the intensities of energy usage within the low and upper-middle income economies only. However, despite these upward pressures, trade openness does not guarantee higher shares of renewable energy use in the total energy consumption within these nations. Thus, the alignment of the trade liberalization policies in these countries with respect to attainment of the renewable energy transition can broadly be questioned. Furthermore, the results also indicate that trade liberalization within the lower middle-income countries is useful only in terms of enhancing the access to clean fuels and technology for cooking. The results, in a nutshell, imply that the impacts of trade liberalization on facilitation of renewable energy transition are large offset by other factors that trigger greater use of the non-renewable energy resources in these countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Murshed, Muntasir, 2019. "Trade Liberalization Policies and Renewable Energy Transition in Low and Middle-Income Countries? An Instrumental Variable Approach," MPRA Paper 97075, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:97075
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/97075/1/MPRA_paper_97075.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sen, Rohit & Bhattacharyya, Subhes C., 2014. "Off-grid electricity generation with renewable energy technologies in India: An application of HOMER," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 388-398.
    2. Brander, James A. & Scott Taylor, M., 1998. "Open access renewable resources: Trade and trade policy in a two-country model," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 181-209, April.
    3. Kanase-Patil, A.B. & Saini, R.P. & Sharma, M.P., 2010. "Integrated renewable energy systems for off grid rural electrification of remote area," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1342-1349.
    4. Paul, Shyamal & Bhattacharya, Rabindra N., 2004. "Causality between energy consumption and economic growth in India: a note on conflicting results," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 977-983, November.
    5. Nandi, Sanjoy Kumar & Ghosh, Himangshu Ranjan, 2010. "Prospect of wind–PV-battery hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension in Bangladesh," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 3040-3047.
    6. Ahmed, Khalid & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Kyophilavong, Phouphet, 2016. "Revisiting the emissions-energy-trade nexus: Evidence from the newly industrializing," MPRA Paper 68680, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Jan 2016.
    7. Pedroni, Peter, 2004. "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic And Finite Sample Properties Of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application To The Ppp Hypothesis," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 597-625, June.
    8. Runge, C. Ford, 1993. "Trade, Pollution And Environmental Protection," Staff Papers 14025, University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics.
    9. Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 1991. "On the application of robust, regression- based diagnostics to models of conditional means and conditional variances," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 5-46, January.
    10. Al-mulali, Usama & Binti Che Sab, Che Normee, 2012. "The impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the economic growth and financial development in the Sub Saharan African countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 180-186.
    11. Sohag, Kazi & Begum, Rawshan Ara & Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura Syed & Jaafar, Mokhtar, 2015. "Dynamics of energy use, technological innovation, economic growth and trade openness in Malaysia," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 90(P2), pages 1497-1507.
    12. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 656-660, January.
    13. Bozoklu, Seref & Yilanci, Veli, 2013. "Energy consumption and economic growth for selected OECD countries: Further evidence from the Granger causality test in the frequency domain," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 877-881.
    14. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nasreen, Samia & Ling, Chong Hui & Sbia, Rashid, 2014. "Causality between trade openness and energy consumption: What causes what in high, middle and low income countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 126-143.
    15. Asafu-Adjaye, John, 2000. "The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: time series evidence from Asian developing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 615-625, December.
    16. Mainali, Brijesh & Silveira, Semida, 2011. "Financing off-grid rural electrification: Country case Nepal," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 2194-2201.
    17. Carlo Perroni & Randall M. Wigle, 1994. "International Trade and Environmental Quality: How Important Are the Linkages?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 27(3), pages 551-567, August.
    18. Sbia, Rashid & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Hamdi, Helmi, 2014. "A contribution of foreign direct investment, clean energy, trade openness, carbon emissions and economic growth to energy demand in UAE," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 191-197.
    19. Sadorsky, Perry, 2009. "Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and oil prices in the G7 countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 456-462, May.
    20. Junfeng, Li & Wan, Yih-huei & Ohi, James M., 1997. "Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 56(3-4), pages 381-394, March.
    21. Owen, Anthony D., 2006. "Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 632-642, March.
    22. K. J. Arrow, 1971. "The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: F. H. Hahn (ed.), Readings in the Theory of Growth, chapter 11, pages 131-149, Palgrave Macmillan.
    23. Malik, Ihtisham Abdul & Siyal, Ghamz-e-Ali & Bin Abdullah, Alias & Alam, Arif & Zaman, Khalid & Kyophilavong, Phouphet & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Baloch, Siraj Ullah & Shams, Tauqeer, 2014. "Turn on the lights: Macroeconomic factors affecting renewable energy in Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 277-284.
    24. Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2009. "Energy consumption and economic growth nexus in Tanzania: An ARDL bounds testing approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 617-622, February.
    25. Chang, Ting-Huan & Huang, Chien-Ming & Lee, Ming-Chih, 2009. "Threshold effect of the economic growth rate on the renewable energy development from a change in energy price: Evidence from OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5796-5802, December.
    26. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2011. "The renewable energy consumption-growth nexus in Central America," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 343-347, January.
    27. Bekele, Getachew & Tadesse, Getnet, 2012. "Feasibility study of small Hydro/PV/Wind hybrid system for off-grid rural electrification in Ethiopia," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 5-15.
    28. Farhani, Sahbi & Shahbaz, Muhammad & AROURI, Mohamed El Hedi, 2013. "Panel analysis of CO2 emissions, GDP, energy consumption, trade openness and urbanization for MENA countries," MPRA Paper 49258, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Aug 2013.
    29. Pfeiffer, Birte & Mulder, Peter, 2013. "Explaining the diffusion of renewable energy technology in developing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 285-296.
    30. Nepal, Rabindra & Jamasb, Tooraj, 2012. "Reforming the power sector in transition: Do institutions matter?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1675-1682.
    31. Judith M. Dean, 2002. "Does trade liberalization harm the environment? A new test," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(4), pages 819-842, November.
    32. Lopez Ramon, 1994. "The Environment as a Factor of Production: The Effects of Economic Growth and Trade Liberalization," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 163-184, September.
    33. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2014. "Renewable energy, output, CO2 emissions, and fossil fuel prices in Central America: Evidence from a nonlinear panel smooth transition vector error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 226-232.
    34. Managi, Shunsuke & Hibiki, Akira & Tsurumi, Tetsuya, 2009. "Does trade openness improve environmental quality?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 346-363, November.
    35. Pollitt, Michael G., 2012. "The role of policy in energy transitions: Lessons from the energy liberalisation era," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 128-137.
    36. Muntasir Murshed, 2020. "Electricity conservation opportunities within private university campuses in Bangladesh," Energy & Environment, , vol. 31(2), pages 256-274, March.
    37. Harris, Richard D. F. & Tzavalis, Elias, 1999. "Inference for unit roots in dynamic panels where the time dimension is fixed," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 201-226, August.
    38. Sharafat Ali & Haiyan Xu & Abul Quasem Al-amin & Najid Ahmad, 2019. "Energy sources choice and environmental sustainability disputes: an evolutional graph model approach," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 53(2), pages 561-581, March.
    39. Shunsuke Managi, 2004. "Trade Liberalization and the Environment: Carbon Dioxide for 1960-1999," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 17(1), pages 1-5.
    40. Toth, Ferenc L. & Rogner, Hans-Holger, 2006. "Oil and nuclear power: Past, present, and future," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 1-25, January.
    41. Salim, Ruhul A. & Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa, 2012. "Why do some emerging economies proactively accelerate the adoption of renewable energy?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 1051-1057.
    42. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 2005. "Is Trade Good or Bad for the Environment? Sorting Out the Causality," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 85-91, February.
    43. Sadorsky, Perry, 2011. "Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 739-749, September.
    44. Mohammed, Y.S. & Mustafa, M.W. & Bashir, N., 2014. "Hybrid renewable energy systems for off-grid electric power: Review of substantial issues," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 527-539.
    45. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Loganathan, Nanthakumar & Sbia, Rashid & Afza, Talat, 2015. "The effect of urbanization, affluence and trade openness on energy consumption: A time series analysis in Malaysia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 683-693.
    46. Kasman, Adnan & Duman, Yavuz Selman, 2015. "CO2 emissions, economic growth, energy consumption, trade and urbanization in new EU member and candidate countries: A panel data analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 97-103.
    47. Henrik Jacobsen, 2000. "Energy Demand, Structural Change and Trade: A Decomposition Analysis of the Danish Manufacturing Industry," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 319-343.
    48. Reddy, Sudhakar & Painuly, J.P, 2004. "Diffusion of renewable energy technologies—barriers and stakeholders’ perspectives," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 29(9), pages 1431-1447.
    49. Muntasir Murshed, 2018. "Does Improvement in Trade Openness Facilitate Renewable Energy Transition? Evidence from Selected South Asian Economies," South Asia Economic Journal, Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka, vol. 19(2), pages 151-170, September.
    50. Shafiei, Sahar & Salim, Ruhul A., 2014. "Non-renewable and renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD countries: A comparative analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 547-556.
    51. Dogan, Eyup & Seker, Fahri, 2016. "Determinants of CO2 emissions in the European Union: The role of renewable and non-renewable energy," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 429-439.
    52. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E. & Menyah, Kojo & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2010. "On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 2255-2260, September.
    53. Omri, Anis & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2014. "On the determinants of renewable energy consumption: International evidence," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 554-560.
    54. Verbruggen, Aviel & Fischedick, Manfred & Moomaw, William & Weir, Tony & Nadaï, Alain & Nilsson, Lars J. & Nyboer, John & Sathaye, Jayant, 2010. "Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 850-861, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Muntasir Murshed & Seemran Rashid, 2020. "An Empirical Investigation of Real Exchange Rate Responses to Foreign Currency Inflows: Revisiting the Dutch Disease Phenomenon in South Asia," The Economics and Finance Letters, Conscientia Beam, vol. 7(1), pages 23-46.
    2. Murshed, Muntasir, 2019. "Does ICT-Trade Openness ensure Energy and Environmental Sustainability? Empirical Evidence from selected South Asian Economies," MPRA Paper 97944, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Murshed, Muntasir, 2019. "Regional Integration, International Tourism Demand and Renewable Energy Transition: Evidence from selected South Asia Economies," MPRA Paper 98095, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Murshed, Muntasir, 2020. "Are Trade Liberalization policies aligned with Renewable Energy Transition in low and middle income countries? An Instrumental Variable approach," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 1110-1123.
    2. Sofien, Tiba & Omri, Anis, 2016. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy variables, environment and economic growth," MPRA Paper 82555, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Sep 2016.
    3. Xiaoxia Shi & Haiyun Liu & Joshua Sunday Riti, 2019. "The role of energy mix and financial development in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions’ reduction: evidence from ten leading CO2 emitting countries," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 36(3), pages 695-729, October.
    4. Cong Khai Dinh & Quang Thanh Ngo & Trung Thanh Nguyen, 2021. "Medium- and High-Tech Export and Renewable Energy Consumption: Non-Linear Evidence from the ASEAN Countries," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(15), pages 1-16, July.
    5. Alam, Md. Mahmudul & Murad, Md. Wahid, 2020. "The impacts of economic growth, trade openness and technological progress on renewable energy use in organization for economic co-operation and development countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 145(C), pages 382-390.
    6. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2015. "Output, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade: Evidence from a panel of 69 countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 799-808.
    7. Chen, Chaoyi & Pinar, Mehmet & Stengos, Thanasis, 2021. "Determinants of renewable energy consumption: Importance of democratic institutions," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 75-83.
    8. Tiba, Sofien & Omri, Anis, 2017. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy, environment and economic growth," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1129-1146.
    9. Ben Jebli, Mehdi & Ben Youssef, Slim, 2013. "Economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption and emissions in North Africa," MPRA Paper 47765, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Dogan, Eyup & Seker, Fahri, 2016. "Determinants of CO2 emissions in the European Union: The role of renewable and non-renewable energy," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 429-439.
    11. Qamruzzaman, Md & Jianguo, Wei, 2020. "The asymmetric relationship between financial development, trade openness, foreign capital flows, and renewable energy consumption: Fresh evidence from panel NARDL investigation," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 159(C), pages 827-842.
    12. Radmehr, Riza & Henneberry, Shida Rastegari & Shayanmehr, Samira, 2021. "Renewable Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, and Economic Growth Nexus: A Simultaneity Spatial Modeling Analysis of EU Countries," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 13-27.
    13. Kahia, Montassar & Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane Ben & Lanouar, Charfeddine, 2017. "Renewable and non-renewable energy use - economic growth nexus: The case of MENA Net Oil Importing Countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 127-140.
    14. Ibrahiem, Dalia M. & Hanafy, Shaimaa A., 2021. "Do energy security and environmental quality contribute to renewable energy? The role of trade openness and energy use in North African countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 667-678.
    15. Acheampong, Alex O., 2018. "Economic growth, CO2 emissions and energy consumption: What causes what and where?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 677-692.
    16. Jin, Taeyoung & Kim, Jinsoo, 2018. "What is better for mitigating carbon emissions – Renewable energy or nuclear energy? A panel data analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 464-471.
    17. Wang, Shaojian & Li, Guangdong & Fang, Chuanglin, 2018. "Urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from countries with different income levels," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P2), pages 2144-2159.
    18. Muntasir Murshed & Kashif Abbass & Seemran Rashid, 2021. "Modelling renewable energy adoption across south Asian economies: Empirical evidence from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(4), pages 5425-5450, October.
    19. Nguyen, Kim Hanh & Kakinaka, Makoto, 2019. "Renewable energy consumption, carbon emissions, and development stages: Some evidence from panel cointegration analysis," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 1049-1057.
    20. Gozgor, Giray & Mahalik, Mantu Kumar & Demir, Ender & Padhan, Hemachandra, 2020. "The impact of economic globalization on renewable energy in the OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    renewable energy; non-renewable energy; renewable energy transition; instrumental variable;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:97075. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Joachim Winter (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.