IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Causality between Trade Openness and Energy Consumption- What Causes What in High, Middle and Low Income Countries

Listed author(s):
  • Muhammad Shahbaz

    (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore)

  • Samia Nasreen

    (Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad)

  • Chong Hui Ling

    (University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur Malaysia)

  • Rashid Sbia

    (Department of Applied Economics, Free University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.)

This paper explores the relationship between trade openness and energy consumption using data of 91 high, middle and low income countries. The study covers the period of 1980-2010. We have applied panel cointegration to examine long run relationship between the variables. The direction of causal relationship between trade openness is investigated by applying Homogenous non-causality, Homogenous causality and Heterogeneous causality tests.Our variables are integrated at I(1) confirmed by time series and panel unit root tests and cointegration is found between trade openness and energy consumption. The relationship between trade openness and energy consumption is inverted U-shaped in high income countries but U-shaped in middle and low income countries. The homogenous and non-homogenous causality analysis reveals the bidirectional causality between trade openness and energy consumption. This paper opens up new insights for policy makers to design a comprehensive economic, trade and policies for sustainable economic growth in long run following heterogeneous causality findings. 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/2014/Volume4/423-459.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 53 (2014)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 423-459

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:53:y:2014:i:4:p:423-459
Contact details of provider: Postal:
P.O.Box 1091, Islamabad-44000

Phone: (92)(51)9248051
Fax: (92)(51)9248065
Web page: http://www.pide.org.pk
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. Pradyot Ranjan Jena & Ulrike Grote, 2008. "Growth–trade–environment nexus in India," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 17(11), pages 1-11.
  2. repec:ipg:wpaper:201411 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Khan, Saleheen & Tahir, Mohammad Iqbal, 2013. "The dynamic links between energy consumption, economic growth, financial development and trade in China: Fresh evidence from multivariate framework analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 8-21.
  4. Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "A literature survey on energy-growth nexus," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 340-349, January.
  5. Janesh Sami, 2011. "Multivariate Cointegration and Causality between Exports, Electricity Consumption and Real Income per Capita: Recent Evidence from Japan," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 1(3), pages 59-68, November.
  6. Halicioglu, Ferda, 2011. "A dynamic econometric study of income, energy and exports in Turkey," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 3348-3354.
  7. Badi H. Baltagi & Dong Li, 2002. "Series Estimation of Partially Linear Panel Data Models with Fixed Effects," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 3(1), pages 103-116, May.
  8. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Hye, Qazi Muhammad Adnan & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Leitão, Nuno Carlos, 2013. "Economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, international trade and CO2 emissions in Indonesia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 109-121.
  9. Yang, Hao-Yen, 2000. "A note on the causal relationship between energy and GDP in Taiwan," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 309-317, June.
  10. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Energy consumption and growth in South America: Evidence from a panel error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1421-1426, November.
  11. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi, 2012. "Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 473-479.
  12. Pedroni, Peter, 2004. "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic And Finite Sample Properties Of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application To The Ppp Hypothesis," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(03), pages 597-625, June.
  13. Masih, Abul M. M. & Masih, Rumi, 1996. "Energy consumption, real income and temporal causality: results from a multi-country study based on cointegration and error-correction modelling techniques," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 165-183, July.
  14. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-057 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. Halil Altýntas & Melike Kum, 2013. "Multivariate Granger Causality between Electricity Generation, Exports, Prices and Economic Growth in Turkey," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 3(Special), pages 41-51.
  16. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Farooq, Abdul, 2013. "Natural gas consumption and economic growth in Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 87-94.
  17. Sadorsky, Perry, 2012. "Energy consumption, output and trade in South America," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 476-488.
  18. Kenneth J. Arrow, 1962. "The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 29(3), pages 155-173.
  19. Akarca, Ali T. & Long, Thomas II, 1979. "Energy and employment: a time-series analysis of the causal relationship," Resources and Energy, Elsevier, vol. 2(2-3), pages 151-162.
  20. repec:dau:papers:123456789/6159 is not listed on IDEAS
  21. Sadorsky, Perry, 2011. "Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 739-749, September.
  22. Ghani, Gairuzazmi M., 2012. "Does trade liberalization effect energy consumption?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 285-290.
  23. Turan Katircioglu, Salih, 2013. "Interactions between energy and imports in Singapore: Empirical evidence from conditional error correction models," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 514-520.
  24. Sbia, Rashid & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Hamdi, Helmi, 2014. "A contribution of foreign direct investment, clean energy, trade openness, carbon emissions and economic growth to energy demand in UAE," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 191-197.
  25. Nair-Reichert, Usha & Weinhold, Diana, 2001. " Causality Tests for Cross-Country Panels: A New Look at FDI and Economic Growth in Developing Countries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(2), pages 153-171, May.
  26. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Smyth, Russell, 2009. "Multivariate granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 229-236, January.
  27. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
  28. Kaddour Hadri & Rolf Larsson, 2005. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data where the time dimension is finite," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 8(1), pages 55-69, 03.
  29. David Canning & Peter Pedroni, 2008. "Infrastructure, Long-Run Economic Growth And Causality Tests For Cointegrated Panels," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 76(5), pages 504-527, 09.
  30. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  31. Karlsson, Sune & Lothgren, Mickael, 2000. "On the power and interpretation of panel unit root tests," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 249-255, March.
  32. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Narayan, Seema & Prasad, Arti, 2008. "A structural VAR analysis of electricity consumption and real GDP: Evidence from the G7 countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 2765-2769, July.
  33. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
  34. Payne, James E., 2010. "A survey of the electricity consumption-growth literature," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 723-731, March.
  35. Rolf Larsson & Johan Lyhagen & Mickael Lothgren, 2001. "Likelihood-based cointegration tests in heterogeneous panels," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 4(1), pages 1-41.
  36. Pedroni, Peter, 1999. " Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-670, Special I.
  37. Cole, Matthew A., 2006. "Does trade liberalization increase national energy use?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 108-112, July.
  38. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  39. Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "On the dynamics of aggregate output, electricity consumption and exports in Malaysia: Evidence from multivariate Granger causality tests," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1963-1971, June.
  40. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-652, Special I.
  41. ASGHAR, Zahid, 2008. "Energy–Gdp Relationship: A Causal Analysis For The Five Countries Of South Asia," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 8(1), pages 167-180.
  42. Dedeoğlu, Dinçer & Kaya, Hüseyin, 2013. "Energy use, exports, imports and GDP: New evidence from the OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 469-476.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:53:y:2014:i:4:p:423-459. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.