Interactions between energy and imports in Singapore: Empirical evidence from conditional error correction models
This study empirically tests for long-run equilibrium relationship and the direction of causality between imports and energy consumption in Singapore. The results of the present study reveal that a long-run equilibrium relationship exists between import growth and energy consumption growth in Singapore by using bivariate systems. Imports of Singapore converge to long-term equilibrium levels by 79.9 percent speed of adjustment through the channel of energy growth. Furthermore, the major finding of this study is that there are long- and short-term undirectional causalities that run from energy growth to import growth in Singapore, which denote that energy consumption in Singapore is a catalyst for importing.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bélaïd, Fateh & Abderrahmani, Fares, 2013. "Electricity consumption and economic growth in Algeria: A multivariate causality analysis in the presence of structural change," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 286-295.
- Dagher, Leila & Yacoubian, Talar, 2012. "The causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in Lebanon," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 795-801.
- Sadorsky, Perry, 2012. "Energy consumption, output and trade in South America," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 476-488.
- Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
- Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992.
"Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
- Denis Kwiatkowski & Peter C.B. Phillips & Peter Schmidt, 1991. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of a Unit Root: How Sure Are We That Economic Time Series Have a Unit Root?," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 979, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Kwiatkowski, D. & Phillips, P.C.B. & Schmidt, P., 1990. "Testing the Null Hypothesis of Stationarity Against the Alternative of Unit Root : How Sure are we that Economic Time Series have a Unit Root?," Papers 8905, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
- Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010.
"Multivariate Granger causality between electricity generation, exports, prices and GDP in Malaysia,"
Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 3640-3648.
- Hooi Hooi Lean & Russell Smyth, 2010. "Multivariate Granger causality between electricity generation, exports, prices and GDP in Malaysia," Monash Economics Working Papers archive-43, Monash University, Department of Economics.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Lean, Hooi Hooi & Smyth, Russell, 2010. "On the dynamics of aggregate output, electricity consumption and exports in Malaysia: Evidence from multivariate Granger causality tests," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1963-1971, June.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015.
"Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2005. "The saving and investment nexus for China: evidence from cointegration tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(17), pages 1979-1990.
- Salih Turan Katircioğlu, 2010. "International Tourism, Higher Education and Economic Growth: The Case of North Cyprus," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(12), pages 1955-1972, December.
- Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Smyth, Russell, 2009. "Multivariate granger causality between electricity consumption, exports and GDP: Evidence from a panel of Middle Eastern countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 229-236, January.
- Sadorsky, Perry, 2011. "Trade and energy consumption in the Middle East," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 739-749, September.
- Eric Zivot & Donald W.K. Andrews, 1990.
"Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
944, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
- Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 1992. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 10(3), pages 251-70, July.
- Wesseh, Presley K. & Zoumara, Babette, 2012. "Causal independence between energy consumption and economic growth in Liberia: Evidence from a non-parametric bootstrapped causality test," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 518-527.
- World Bank, 2012. "World Development Indicators 2012," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6014, April.
- Chang, Youngho & Wong, Joon Fong, 2003. "Oil price fluctuations and Singapore economy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(11), pages 1151-1165, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:63:y:2013:i:c:p:514-520. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.