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Social norms and gender discrimination in the labor market: An agent-based exercise

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  • Quintero Rojas, Coralia Azucena
  • Viianto, Lari Artur

Abstract

The incorporation of women into the labor market remains a challenge for most countries; likewise, gender gaps are observed in indicators such as employment, unemployment and participation. In this paper we study the role of social norms in the labor market performance per gender; that is, how gender gaps arise from conservative gender roles. To this end, we construct an agent-based model where discrimination appears when information on job vacancies is transmitted within a social network with preference to a given gender. Networks are defined by size, closeness and links per family. Our results show that: Social networks enhance the chance of getting a job. Discrimination deepens gender gaps. Discrimination does not favor the employment situation of households, since the share of non-income households (both members unemployed) is not reduced. Rather, discrimination reduces the number of two-income households in favor of the single-income households where only the man is employed.

Suggested Citation

  • Quintero Rojas, Coralia Azucena & Viianto, Lari Artur, 2019. "Social norms and gender discrimination in the labor market: An agent-based exercise," MPRA Paper 96752, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:96752
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/96752/1/MPRA_paper_96752.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. L. Rachel Ngai & Barbara Petrongolo, 2017. "Gender Gaps and the Rise of the Service Economy," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 1-44, October.
    2. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2016. "The Evolution of Gender Gaps in Industrialized Countries," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 8(1), pages 405-434, October.
    3. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/8650 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Michael C Burda & Daniel S Hamermesh & Philippe Weil, 2007. "Total Work, Gender and Social Norms," Working Papers hal-00972818, HAL.
    5. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    6. Marianne Bertrand & Emir Kamenica & Jessica Pan, 2015. "Gender Identity and Relative Income within Households," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 130(2), pages 571-614.
    7. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/8651 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    9. Giorgio Topa, 2001. "Social Interactions, Local Spillovers and Unemployment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 68(2), pages 261-295.
    10. Montgomery, James D, 1991. "Social Networks and Labor-Market Outcomes: Toward an Economic Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1407-1418, December.
    11. Henry Sanborn, 1964. "Pay Differences between Men and Women," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 17(4), pages 534-550, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    social networks; social norms; gender inequality; discrimination; labor markets; economic systems.;

    JEL classification:

    • C63 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computational Techniques
    • D85 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Network Formation
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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