IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Gründungshemmnisse in Marktmechanismen und Marktumfeld: Facetten empirischer Evidenz
[Start-up Barriers in Germany: A Review of the Empirical Literature]

  • Block, Jörn
  • Brockmann, Heiner
  • Klandt, Heinz
  • Kohn, Karsten

Vor dem Hintergrund von Markt- und Staatsversagenstatbeständen leitet die wirtschaftstheoretische Literatur mögliche Hemmnisse für Existenzgründungen ab. Die vorliegende Studie unternimmt eine Systematisierung unterschiedlicher Facetten entsprechender empirischer Evidenz. Hierbei liegt ein Schwerpunkt auf Studien für Deutschland. Diese Studien identifizieren verschiedene Hemmnisse auf Faktor- und Absatzmärkten, wobei besonderes Augenmerk auf die Existenz von Finanzierungsschwierigkeiten gerichtet wird. So zeigen Gründer- und Unternehmensbefragungen, dass sich insbesondere innovative Gründer und kleine, junge Unternehmen auf Finanzmärkten Schwierigkeiten bei der Mittelbeschaffung gegenübersehen; auf Arbeitsmärkten fällt es Gründungen im Vergleich zu etablierten Unternehmen schwerer qualifiziertes Personal zu gewinnen; und beim Eintritt in einen Absatzmarkt werden Kundensuche und Auftragsakquisition als schwierig empfunden, während auf der Lieferantenseite kaum Hindernisse gesehen werden. Hinsichtlich staatlicher Rahmenbedingungen deuten Umfragestudien und internationale Institutionenvergleiche darauf hin, dass bürokratische Hürden und Regelungen des Arbeits- und des Insolvenzrechts gründungshemmend wirken können. Steht schließlich die Gründerperson im Blickfeld, so zeigen individualpsychologische Studien, dass in Deutschland gründungshemmende Defizite im Bereich der persönlichen Risikotoleranz sowie beim Vertrauen in eigene unternehmerische Fähigkeiten bestehen. Andererseits sind einige gründungsförderliche Eigenschaften wie z. B. Leistungsbereitschaft im Ländervergleich stark ausgeprägt. Insgesamt legt unsere Synopsis eine Vielzahl von Gründungshemmnissen offen, deren Existenz durch eine breite Palette empirischer Evidenz untermauert ist. Wie allerdings diese Hemmnisse, die beispielsweise aus internationalen Vergleichen institutioneller Rahmenbedingungen herauszulesen sind oder die im Zuge von Umfragestudien artikuliert werden, letztendlich einzuordnen sind und ob sie tatsächlich auf Marktversagen (bspw. bei der Gründungsfinanzierung) oder Staatsversagen (bspw. im Zusammenhang mit rechtlichen Rahmensetzungen) zurückzuführen sind, bleibt trotz der Fülle empirischer Studien offen – zu defizitär sind häufig die Datengrundlagen und verwendeten Methoden, die hinreichend abgesicherte Aussagen diesbezüglich ermöglichen würden.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/9358/3/MPRA_paper_9358.pdf
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 9358.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 28 Jun 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:9358
Contact details of provider: Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Akerlof, George A, 1970. "The Market for 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500, August.
  2. Audretsch, David B. & Elston, Julie Ann, 2000. "Does firm size matter? Evidence on the impact of liquidity constraint on firm investment behavior in Germany," HWWA Discussion Papers 113, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  3. Metzger, Georg, 2006. "Once bitten, twice shy? The performance of entrepreneurial restarts," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-83, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  4. Egeln, Jurgen & Licht, Georg & Steil, Fabian, 1997. " Firm Foundations and the Role of Financial Constraints," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 137-50, April.
  5. Oi, Walter Y. & Idson, Todd L., 1999. "Firm size and wages," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 33, pages 2165-2214 Elsevier.
  6. Szabo, Erna & Brodbeck, Felix C. & Den Hartog, Deanne N. & Reber, Gerhard & Weibler, Jürgen & Wunderer, Rolf, 2002. "The Germanic Europe cluster: where employees have a voice," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 55-68, April.
  7. de Meza, David & Webb, David C, 1987. "Too Much Investment: A Problem of Asymmetric Information," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 102(2), pages 281-92, May.
  8. De Meza, D. & Southey, C., 1995. "The Borrower's Curse: Optimism, Finance and Enterpreneurship," Discussion Papers 9502, Exeter University, Department of Economics.
  9. Sandner, Philipp G. & Block, Jörn H. & Lutz, Andreas, 2008. "Determinanten des Erfolgs staatlich geförderter Existenzgründungen – eine empirische Untersuchung," Discussion Papers in Business Administration 2968, University of Munich, Munich School of Management.
  10. Baron, Robert A., 2000. "Counterfactual thinking and venture formation: The potential effects of thinking about "what might have been"," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 79-91, January.
  11. Bates, Timothy, 1990. "Entrepreneur Human Capital Inputs and Small Business Longevity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(4), pages 551-59, November.
  12. Burke, Andrew E & FitzRoy, Felix R & Nolan, Michael A, 2000. " When Less Is More: Distinguishing between Entrepreneurial Choice and Performance," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 62(5), pages 565-87, December.
  13. Kaish, Stanley & Gilad, Benjamin, 1991. "Characteristics of opportunities search of entrepreneurs versus executives: Sources, interests, general alertness," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 45-61, January.
  14. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
  15. Gale, Douglas & Hellwig, Martin, 1985. "Incentive-Compatible Debt Contracts: The One-Period Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(4), pages 647-63, October.
  16. Babb, Emerson M. & Babb, Stuart V., 1992. "Psychological traits of rural entrepreneurs," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 353-362.
  17. Petra Moog & Uschi Backes-Gellner & Gldem Demirer, 2005. "Arbeitsrechtliche Regulierungen und ihr Einfluss auf Unternehmensgrndungen," Working Papers 0052, University of Zurich, Institute for Strategy and Business Economics (ISU), revised Sep 2005.
  18. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521828130 is not listed on IDEAS
  19. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1993. "Sticking it Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints," NBER Working Papers 4494, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Audretsch, David B & Elston, Julie Ann, 1994. "Does Firm Size Matter? Evidence on the Impacts of Liquidity Constraints on Firm Investment Behaviour in Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers 1072, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  21. Brixy, Udo & Kohaut, Susanne & Schnabel, Claus, 2004. "Do newly founded firms pay lower wages? : first evidence from Germany," IAB Discussion Paper 200404, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  22. Berger, Allen N & Udell, Gregory F, 1992. "Some Evidence on the Empirical Significance of Credit Rationing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 1047-77, October.
  23. Schmalensee, Richard, 1982. "Product Differentiation Advantages of Pioneering Brands," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 349-65, June.
  24. Sarasvathy, D. K. & Simon, Herbert A. & Lave, Lester, 1998. "Perceiving and managing business risks: differences between entrepreneurs and bankers," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 207-225, January.
  25. Gupta, Vipin & Hanges, Paul J. & Dorfman, Peter, 2002. "Cultural clusters: methodology and findings," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 11-15, April.
  26. Busenitz, Lowell W. & Barney, Jay B., 1997. "Differences between entrepreneurs and managers in large organizations: Biases and heuristics in strategic decision-making," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 9-30, January.
  27. Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Earnings, Independence or Unemployment: Why Become Self-Employed?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 253-66, May.
  28. Hillier, Brian & Ibrahimo, M V, 1993. "Asymmetric Information and Models of Credit Rationing," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(4), pages 271-304, October.
  29. Wolf, Björn, 2006. "Empirische Untersuchung zu den Einflussfaktoren der Finanzierungsprobleme junger Unternehmen in Deutschland und deren Auswirkungen auf die Wirtschaftspolitik," Working Papers "Firms and Region" U1/2006, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI).
  30. Weiss, Andrew W, 1980. "Job Queues and Layoffs in Labor Markets with Flexible Wages," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(3), pages 526-38, June.
  31. Dan Lovallo & Colin Camerer, 1999. "Overconfidence and Excess Entry: An Experimental Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 306-318, March.
  32. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  33. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  34. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:9358. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.