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Does Firm Size Matter? Evidence on the Impacts of Liquidity Constraints on Firm Investment Behaviour in Germany

  • Audretsch, David B
  • Elston, Julie Ann

This paper examines the link between liquidity constraints and investment behaviour on the one hand, and firm size on the other for a large sample of German firms over the time period 1968-85. The results indicate that smaller firms tend to have investment functions which are more sensitive to liquidity constraints than do the larger enterprises. These results support the hypothesis that smaller firms tend to be disadvantaged relative to their larger counterparts in terms of access to finance. Such liquidity constraints are found to exist in Germany only since the mid-1970s, however. Apparently the German model of finance was able to avoid imposing financial constraints on even smaller enterprises prior to the mid-1970s. Since then, however, the evidence suggests that it has not succeeded in avoiding such liquidity constraints, particularly with respect to the finance of smaller enterprises.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 1072.

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Date of creation: Nov 1994
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1072
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  1. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
  2. Akerlof, George A, 1970. "The Market for 'Lemons': Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500, August.
  3. Chirinko, Robert S, 1993. "Business Fixed Investment Spending: Modeling Strategies, Empirical Results, and Policy Implications," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(4), pages 1875-1911, December.
  4. Elston, Julie, 1997. "A Comparison of Empirical Investment Equations using Company Panel Data for France, Germany, Belgium and the UK," Working Papers 981, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
  5. Jaffee, Dwight M & Russell, Thomas, 1976. "Imperfect Information, Uncertainty, and Credit Rationing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 651-66, November.
  6. Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
  7. Robert S. Chirinko, 1993. "Business fixed investment spending: a critical survey of modeling strategies, empirical results, and policy implications," Research Working Paper 93-01, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
  8. Cable, John R, 1985. "Capital Market Information and Industrial Performance: The Role of West German Banks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 95(377), pages 118-32, March.
  9. Steven M. Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & BRUCE C. PETERSEN, 1988. "Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 19(1), pages 141-206.
  10. Tobin, James, 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 15-29, February.
  11. Elston, Julie Ann, 1996. "Investment, Liquidity Constraints and Bank Relationships: Evidence from German Manufacturing Firms," CEPR Discussion Papers 1329, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
  13. Corbett, Jennifer & Jenkinson, Tim, 1994. "The Financing of Industry, 1970-89: An International Comparison," CEPR Discussion Papers 948, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  14. William C. Brainard & James Tobin, 1968. "Pitfalls in Financial Model-Building," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 244, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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