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Sex and the Business Cycle

Author

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  • Wall, Howard J.

Abstract

This paper estimates the differences between the sexes in the depths, lengths, timing, and overall effects of recessions in the United States. I find that, prior to the mid-1980s, recessions had roughly the same effects on male and female employment growth, but that male employment stayed in recession for longer. Since then, however, recessions have hit male employment much harder per month, although female employment suffered longer recessions. Accounting for the sex-specific timing of recessions, as well as for forgone employment growth, (1) the negative effects of recessions on both male and female employment are much larger than is usually found and (2) male employment is hit relatively harder by recessions, although the difference between the sexes is much smaller than the previous literature indicates.

Suggested Citation

  • Wall, Howard J., 2018. "Sex and the Business Cycle," MPRA Paper 89716, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:89716
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/89716/1/MPRA_paper_89716.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:bla:manchs:v:86:y:2018:i:3:p:333-357 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Bredemeier, Christian & Juessen, Falko & Winkler, Roland, 2017. "Man-cessions, fiscal policy, and the gender composition of employment," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 73-76.
    3. Giovanni Razzu & Carl Singleton, 2014. "Gender and the Business Cycle: A Stocks and Flows Analysis of US and UK Labour Market States," Economics & Management Discussion Papers em-dp2014-10, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    4. Peiró, Amado & Belaire-Franch, Jorge & Gonzalo, Maria Teresa, 2012. "Unemployment, cycle and gender," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 1167-1175.
    5. Hilary Hoynes & Douglas L. Miller & Jessamyn Schaller, 2012. "Who Suffers during Recessions?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 27-48, Summer.
    6. Christian Bredemeier & Roland Winkler, 2017. "The employment dynamics of different population groups over the business cycle," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(26), pages 2545-2562, June.
    7. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-384, March.
    8. Jill Rubery & Anthony Rafferty, 2013. "Women and recession revisited," Work, Employment & Society, British Sociological Association, vol. 27(3), pages 414-432, June.
    9. Chang-Jin Kim & Charles R. Nelson, 1999. "State-Space Models with Regime Switching: Classical and Gibbs-Sampling Approaches with Applications," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262112388, March.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Keywords: gender differences; business cycles; employment cycles; jobless recovery;

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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