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Does Soft Corruption Make Grease or Sand for Development? Evidence from Road's Special Allocation Fund for Indonesian Districts


  • Nasrudin, Rus'an


Under a question whether corruption acts as grease or sand for development, this paper estimates the effect of special allocation fund (SAF) or DAK in road sector to infrastructure provision (road) at the district level in Indonesia. The political fragmentation and its political earmarking, defined as the effective number of central parliamentary members from a district are used as an instrumental variable (IV) for the amount of SAF in each district combined with a difference-in-difference measure for the rural road. Such empirical strategy is adopted to tackle three endogeneity problems: selection bias, measurement error and reverse causality between SAF allocation and rural road. First I find that the influence of political earmark is statistically significant than the formula-based approach. Second, under the influence of political earmarking, the IV result shows that the SAF allocation does not affect a rural-road provision in Indonesia in the early implementation of fiscal decentralisation. It seems that allocation based on the block grant or general allocation fund is having more clear effect in the presence of earmarking of special allocation fund. %A billion IDR the allocation is associated with 7 pp. increase in rural with asphalt road. The result challenges the sand hypothesis in the context of decentralising public fund in road sector in Indonesia in the early implementation of decentralisation period.

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  • Nasrudin, Rus'an, 2015. "Does Soft Corruption Make Grease or Sand for Development? Evidence from Road's Special Allocation Fund for Indonesian Districts," MPRA Paper 80578, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 08 Aug 2017.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:80578

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Campos, Nauro & Saleh, Ahmad & Dimova, Ralitza, 2010. "Whither Corruption? A Quantitative Survey of the Literature on Corruption and Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 8140, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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    More about this item


    pork-barrel; road; special allocation fund; Indonesia;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H30 - Public Economics - - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents - - - General
    • H60 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - General
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

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