IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/47549.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

On the Welfare Cost of Inflation: The Case of Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Mushtaq, Siffat
  • Rashid, Abdul
  • Qayyum, Abdul

Abstract

In this study we quantified the welfare cost of inflation from the estimated long-run money demand functions for Pakistan for the period 1960-2007 using cointegration approach. The empirical results show that all the monetary aggregates are negatively related to the interest rate. The welfare gain of moving from positive inflation to zero inflation is approximately same under both money demand specifications but the behavior of the two models is different towards low interest rates. Moving from zero inflation to zero nominal interest rate has substantial gain under log-log form compared to the semi-log function. Compensating variation approach for the semi-log model gives higher welfare loss figures compared to the Bailey’s approach due to the quadratic nature of nominal interest rate in the Lucas (2000) welfare measure. However, the two approaches yield approximately similar the welfare cost of inflation for the log-log specification.

Suggested Citation

  • Mushtaq, Siffat & Rashid, Abdul & Qayyum, Abdul, 2013. "On the Welfare Cost of Inflation: The Case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 47549, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:47549
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/47549/1/MPRA_paper_47549.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Qayyum, Abdul, 1998. "Error Correction Model of the Demand for Money in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 2582, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 1998.
    2. Martha López P., 2001. "Seigniorage and the welfare cost of inflation in Colombia," Revista ESPE - Ensayos Sobre Política Económica, Banco de la República - ESPE, vol. 19(39), pages 115-131, June.
    3. Abdul Qayyum, 2000. "Demand for Real Money Balances by the Business Sector: An Econometric Investigation," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 857-873.
    4. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-954, August.
    5. Bali, Turan G., 2000. "U.S. money demand and the welfare cost of inflation in a currency-deposit model," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 233-258.
    6. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Bohl, Martin T., 2000. "German monetary unification and the stability of the German M3 money demand function," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 203-208, February.
    7. Thomas F. Cooley & Gary D. Hansen, 1991. "The welfare costs of moderate inflations," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 483-518.
    8. Barro, Robert J, 1972. "Inflationary Finance and the Welfare Cost of Inflation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(5), pages 978-1001, Sept.-Oct.
    9. Khan, Abdul Aleem & Ahmed, Qazi Masood & Hyder, Kalim, 2007. "Determinants oF Recent Inflation in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 16254, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2007.
    10. Mohsin S. Khan & Axel Schimmelpfennig, 2006. "Inflation in Pakistan: Money or Wheat?," SBP Research Bulletin, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department, vol. 2, pages 213-234..
    11. Abdul Qayyum, 2005. "Modelling the Demand for Money in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(3), pages 233-252.
    12. Max Gillman, 1995. "Comparing Partial And General Equilibrium Estimates Of The Welfare Cost Of Inflation," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 13(4), pages 60-71, October.
    13. Tower, Edward, 1971. "More on the Welfare Cost of Inflationary Finance," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 3(4), pages 850-860, November.
    14. Abdul Qayyum, 2001. "Sectoral Analysis of the Demand for Real Money Balances in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 953-966.
    15. Gillman, Max, 1993. "The welfare cost of inflation in a cash-in-advance economy with costly credit," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 97-115, February.
    16. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Qazi Muhammad Adnan Hye, 2013. "Financial liberalization and demand for money: a case of Pakistan," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 47(2), pages 175-198, July-Dece.
    17. Syed Muhammad Tariq & Kent Matthews, 1997. "The Demand for Simple-sum and Divisia Monetary Aggregates for Pakistan: A Cointegration Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(3), pages 275-291.
    18. Mohsin S. Khan & Axel Schimmelpfennig, 2006. "Inflation in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 45(2), pages 185-202.
    19. Abdul Qayyum, 2006. "Money, Inflation, and Growth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 45(2), pages 203-212.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Khan, Safdar Ullah & Saqib, Omar Farooq, 2011. "Political instability and inflation in Pakistan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 540-549.
    2. S. Adnan & H.A.S. BUKHARI & Safdar Ullah KHAN, 2008. "Does Volatility In Government Borrowing Leads To Higher Inflation? Evidence From Pakistan," Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, Spiru Haret University, Faculty of Financial Management and Accounting Craiova, vol. 3(3(5)_Fall), pages 187-202.
    3. Miller, Stephen M. & Martins, Luis Filipe & Gupta, Rangan, 2019. "A Time-Varying Approach Of The Us Welfare Cost Of Inflation," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 775-797, March.
    4. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-474 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Pessôa, Samuel de Abreu, 2000. "Welfare characterization of monetary-applied models and three implications," FGV EPGE Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 378, EPGE Brazilian School of Economics and Finance - FGV EPGE (Brazil).
    6. Abdullah, Muhammad & Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Ali, Amjad, 2012. "Determinants of Money Demand in Pakistan: Disaggregated Expenditure Approach," MPRA Paper 50977, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2013.
    7. Jalil, Abdul & Tariq, Rabbia & Bibi, Nazia, 2014. "Fiscal deficit and inflation: New evidences from Pakistan using a bounds testing approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 120-126.
    8. Wen, Jean-Francois & Love, David R. F., 1998. "Evaluating Tax Reforms in a Monetary Economy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 487-508, July.
    9. Sumera Arshad & Amajd Ali, 2016. "Trade-off between Inflation, Interest and Unemployment Rate of Pakistan: Revisited," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 5(4), pages 193-209, December.
    10. Max Gillman & Michal Kejak, 2005. "Inflation and Balanced-Path Growth with Alternative Payment Mechanisms," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(500), pages 247-270, January.
    11. Rodrigo Suescún M., 1995. "Growth, Welfare Costs and Aggregate Fluctuations in Economies with Monetary Taxation," Borradores de Economia 036, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    12. Aruoba, S. Boragan & Waller, Christopher J. & Wright, Randall, 2011. "Money and capital," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 98-116, March.
    13. Saira Tufail & Sadia Batool, 2013. "An Analysis of the Relationship between Inflation and Gold Prices: Evidence from Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(2), pages 1-35, July-Dec.
    14. Hanif, M Nadim & Hyder, Zulfiqar & Lodhi, M Amin Khan & Khan, Mahmood ul Hassan & Batool, Irem, 2008. "A small-size macroeconometric model for Pakistan economy," MPRA Paper 22930, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2010.
    15. Max Gillman, 1995. "Comparing Partial And General Equilibrium Estimates Of The Welfare Cost Of Inflation," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 13(4), pages 60-71, October.
    16. Erosa, Andres & Ventura, Gustavo, 2002. "On inflation as a regressive consumption tax," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 761-795, May.
    17. André C. Silva, 2012. "Rebalancing Frequency and the Welfare Cost of Inflation," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 153-183, April.
    18. Yannick Roussel & Amjad Ali & Marc Audi, 2021. "Measuring The Money Demand In Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 10(1), pages 27-41, March.
    19. Hanif, Muhammad Nadim, 2014. "Monetary Policy Experience of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 60855, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Adnan Haider & Asad Jan & Kalim Hyder, 2013. "On the (Ir)Relevance of Monetary Aggregate Targeting in Pakistan: An Eclectic View," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(2), pages 65-119, July-Dec.
    21. Martha López, 2006. "Algunos criterios para evaluar una meta de inflación de largo plazo," Borradores de Economia 386, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Inflation; Welfare costs; Pakistan;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E3 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
    • E4 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:47549. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Joachim Winter (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.