IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/pid/journl/v39y2000i4p857-873.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Demand for Real Money Balances by the Business Sector: An Econometric Investigation

Author

Listed:
  • Abdul Qayyum

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

Abstract

Monetary economics provides one of the important tools, that is monetary policy, to deal with the macroeconomic problems of the economy. It is concerned with the supply of money and the demand for money. It is often assumed that the money supply is exogenously determined by the authorities and the demand for real money is determined by the market. The demand for money is of crucial importance in the conduct of monetary policy. It helps to understand macroeconomic activities and to prescribe appropriate policy instruments to deal with macroeconomic problems. The effectiveness of the monetary policy, however, depends on the shape and stability of the estimated demand for money function. Empirical studies of the money demand in Pakistan concentrated on the estimation of aggregate money demand function by using conventional regression analysis. The main criticism against the aggregate models of the money demand is that these models lumped two different sectors of the economy, such as the household sector and the business sector. Further, it is argued that these two sectors have diversified behaviour. Their money demand behaviour is subject to different requirements. Sectoral money demand behaviour is thoroughly investigated in developed counties but a very thin literature on the estimation of money demand function by the business sector in developing countries is available, for example, Unger and Zilberfarb (1980) and Cameron and Qayyum (1994). Econometric methodology of these studies is mainly concerned with the estimation of two types of money demand functions such as long-run static and shortrun partial adjustment mechanism. However, the researchers employing the technique of cointegration in the empirical testing of money demand function have cast serious doubt on the results of these studies.

Suggested Citation

  • Abdul Qayyum, 2000. "Demand for Real Money Balances by the Business Sector: An Econometric Investigation," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 857-873.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:39:y:2000:i:4:p:857-873
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/2000/Volume4/857-873.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hendry, David F. & Pagan, Adrian R. & Sargan, J.Denis, 1984. "Dynamic specification," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 18, pages 1023-1100, Elsevier.
    2. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    3. Bera, Anil K. & Jarque, Carlos M., 1982. "Model specification tests : A simultaneous approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 59-82, October.
    4. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    5. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    6. Ungar, Meyer & Zilberfarb, Benzion, 1980. "The Demand for Money by Firms: The Stability and Other Issues Reexamined," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(3), pages 779-785, June.
    7. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    8. J. Tobin, 1958. "Liquidity Preference as Behavior Towards Risk," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(2), pages 65-86.
    9. Granger, C. W. J., 1981. "Some properties of time series data and their use in econometric model specification," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 121-130, May.
    10. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 277-301, March.
    11. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    12. James G. MacKinnon, 1990. "Critical Values for Cointegration Tests," Working Paper 1227, Economics Department, Queen's University.
    13. Stock, James H, 1987. "Asymptotic Properties of Least Squares Estimators of Cointegrating Vectors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(5), pages 1035-1056, September.
    14. Qayyum, Abdul, 1999. "Demand for Money By Business Sector in a Developing Country: Evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 2583, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 0199.
    15. Wilbratte, Barry J, 1975. "Some Essential Differences in the Demand for Money by Households and by Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 30(4), pages 1091-1099, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Siffat Mushtaq & Abdul Rashid & Abdul Qayyum, 2012. "On the Welfare Cost of Inflation: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(1), pages 61-96.
    2. Muhammad Arshad Khan & Muhammad Zabir Sajjid, 2005. "The Exchange Rates and Monetary Dynamics in Pakistan: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Approach," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 10(2), pages 87-99, Jul-Dec.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ericsson, Neil R., 1992. "Cointegration, exogeneity, and policy analysis: An overview," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 251-280, June.
    2. Charles G. Renfro, 2009. "The Practice of Econometric Theory," Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Applied Econometrics, Springer, number 978-3-540-75571-5, enero-jun.
    3. Wong Keung-Wing & Habibullah Khan & Jun Du, 2006. "Money, Interest Rate and Stock Prices: New Evidence from Singapore and The United States," Departmental Working Papers wp0601, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.
    4. Neil R. Ericsson & James G. MacKinnon, 2002. "Distributions of error correction tests for cointegration," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 5(2), pages 285-318, June.
    5. Stefka Slavova, 2003. "Money demand during hyperinflation and stabilization: Bulgaria, 1991-2000," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(11), pages 1303-1316.
    6. Dimitris Kenourgios & Aristeidis Samitas, 2005. "Testing Efficiency Of The Copper Futures Market: New Evidence From London Metal Exchange," Finance 0512010, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. E. Schirru, 1996. "Modelli di determinazione del tasso di cambio: un'analisi di cointegrazione," Working Paper CRENoS 199610, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
    8. Ram Bhar, 1994. "Yield Curve as a Cointegrated System: Evidence from Australian Treasury Securities," Working Paper Series 35, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
    9. Bierens, Herman J., 1997. "Nonparametric cointegration analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 379-404, April.
    10. Isabel Cortés-Jiménez & Manuel Artís, 2005. "The role of the tourism sector in economic development - Lessons from the Spanish experience," ERSA conference papers ersa05p488, European Regional Science Association.
    11. M. T. Alguacil & V. Orts, 2003. "Inward Foreign Direct Investment and Imports in Spain," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 19-38.
    12. Neil R. Ericsson, 2021. "Dynamic Econometrics in Action: A Biography of David F. Hendry," International Finance Discussion Papers 1311, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    13. Kremers, Jeroen J M & Ericsson, Neil R & Dolado, Juan J, 1992. "The Power of Cointegration Tests," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 325-348, August.
    14. Vicente Esteve, 2004. "Política fiscal y productividad del trabajo en la economía española: un análisis de series temporales," Revista de Analisis Economico – Economic Analysis Review, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Business, vol. 19(1), pages 3-29, June.
    15. Bardsen, G. & Klovland, J.T., 1990. "Finding The Rigth Nominal Anchor: The Cointegration Of Money, Credit And Nominal Income In Norway," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 350, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    16. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:15:y:2005:i:19:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Mcgibany, James M. & Nourzad, Farrokh, 1995. "Exchange rate volatility and the demand for money in the U.S," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 411-425.
    18. Jean-François Fillion, 1996. "L'endettement du Canada et ses effets sur les taux d'interet reels de long term," Staff Working Papers 96-14, Bank of Canada.
    19. John Y. Campbell & Pierre Perron, 1991. "Pitfalls and Opportunities: What Macroeconomists Should Know About Unit Roots," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1991, Volume 6, pages 141-220, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. James Kung & Andrew Carverhill, 2005. "A cointegration study of the efficiency of the US Treasury STRIPS market," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(6), pages 695-703.
    21. Dilip Dutta & Nasiruddin Ahmed, 2004. "Trade liberalization and industrial growth in Pakistan: a cointegration analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(13), pages 1421-1429.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:39:y:2000:i:4:p:857-873. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/pideipk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Khurram Iqbal (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/pideipk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.