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The Demand for Simple-sum and Divisia Monetary Aggregates for Pakistan: A Cointegration Approach

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  • Syed Muhammad Tariq

    (State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi.)

  • Kent Matthews

    (Cardiff Business School, University of Wales College of Crdiff, Cardiff, Wales, UK.)

Abstract

Financial liberalisation and the advance of financial innovation in a number of developed economies has been blamed for the break-down in the demand for money based on simple sum measures. This break-down has prompted research into Divisia measures of the demand for money. Like many developing countries, Pakistan is going through a period of financial deregulation which goes hand in hand with financial innovation due to increased competition in the banking industry. This paper employs the methodology of cointegration to compare simple-sum and Divisia level estimates of the demand for money for Pakistan for the period 1974Q4 to 1992Q4. Simple sum measures of M1 and M2 were compared with Divisia versions. The paper reports little evidence in support of the superiority of the Divisia monetary aggregates. Both types of measure produce a stable demand for money and perform satisfactorily in post-sample stability tests, although the Divisia measure appears to perform marginally better on conventional statistical criteria. However, our conclusions have to be qualified by the limitations of the data and the knowledge that the period of financial innovation and deregulation has been relatively recent. The policy significance of the results suggests that currently there is no advantage from switching from simple-sum to Divisia aggregates at the existing level of official aggregation as the proper indicator of monetary policy. However, if financial deregulation and innovation continues at the current pace, the Divisia aggregates may in future prove to be the better indicator.

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  • Syed Muhammad Tariq & Kent Matthews, 1997. "The Demand for Simple-sum and Divisia Monetary Aggregates for Pakistan: A Cointegration Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(3), pages 275-291.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:36:y:1997:i:3:p:275-291
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    1. Madhavi Bokil & Axel Schimmelpfennig, 2006. "Three Attempts at Inflation Forecasting in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 45(3), pages 341-368.
    2. Khan, Mahmood ul Hasan & Hussain, Fida, 2005. "Monetary aggregates in Pakistan: theoretical and empirical underpinnings," MPRA Paper 31430, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2005.
    3. Haroon Sarwar & Zakir Hussain & Masood Sarwar, 2011. "A Semi-Nonparametric Approach to the Demand for Money in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 16(2), pages 87-110, Jul-Dec.
    4. Siffat Mushtaq & Abdul Rashid & Abdul Qayyum, 2012. "On the Welfare Cost of Inflation: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 51(1), pages 61-96.
    5. S. Adnan & H.A.S. BUKHARI & Safdar Ullah KHAN, 2008. "Does Volatility In Government Borrowing Leads To Higher Inflation? Evidence From Pakistan," Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, Spiru Haret University, Faculty of Financial Management and Accounting Craiova, vol. 3(3(5)_Fall), pages 187-202.
    6. Moinuddin, 2007. "Choice of Monetary Policy Regime: Should SBP Adopt Inflation Targeting," SBP Working Paper Series 19, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department.
    7. International Monetary Fund, 2005. "Three Attempts at Inflation Forecasting in Pakistan," IMF Working Papers 2005/105, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Hayat, Zafar & Balli, Faruk & Rehman, Muhammad, 2017. "The relevance and relative robustness of sources of inflation bias in Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 283-303.
    9. Sarwar, haroon & Hussian, zakir & Awan, masood sarwar, 2011. "Money Demand Functions for Pakistan (Divisia Approach)," MPRA Paper 34361, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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