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Learning by exporting in Turkey: an investigation for existence and channels

  • Maggioni, Daniela

Using a rich longitudinal database at the plant level, I shed new light on the causal nexus between exports and productivity for Turkey, a middle-income country. I find evidence for both self-selection into exporting and learning-by-exporting. My main focus is on post-entry effects. To test this hypothesis I follow recent empirical literature and I apply the Propensity Score Matching and a Difference-in-Difference estimator. I find a higher labour productivity and TFP growth for exporting firms in the entry year and some years following the entry. Exports seem to place firms on a superior productivity path. My main contribution is to show the strict linkage between export and import activity: export starters often start also importing. Learning by exporting effects hold when I control for the role of imports and I verify larger productivity gains for firms which start exporting and importing at the same time. Finally, in order to verify if post-entry effects are not only scale eects but work through competition channel and/or technology transfers, I look for a heterogeneity according to the sectoral productivity gap between the domestic market and foreign trade partners. I verify a different timing of efficiency improvements between comparative advantage and disadvantage sectors.

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File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/37157/1/MPRA_paper_37157.pdf
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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 37157.

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Date of creation: 03 Jan 2010
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:37157
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  1. Mirabelle Muûls & Mauro Pisu, . "Imports and exports at the level of the firm: Evidence from Belgium," Discussion Papers 07/28, University of Nottingham, GEP.
  2. Roberto Alvarez & Ricardo López, 2005. "Exporting and performance: evidence from Chilean plants," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1384-1400, November.
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  4. Marco Caliendo & Sabine Kopeinig, 2005. "Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 485, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
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  9. Joze P. Damijan & Crt Kostevc, 2005. "Performance on Exports: Continuous Productivity Improvements or Capacity Utilization," LICOS Discussion Papers 16305, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  10. Gianmarco Ottaviano & Thierry Mayer, . "The happy few: the internationalisation of European firms," Blueprints, Bruegel, number 12, 3.
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  12. Joachim Wagner, 2007. "Exports and Productivity in Germany," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2007-15, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  13. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias, 2000. "Evaluation methods for non-experimental data," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 427-468, January.
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  16. Blalock, Garrick & Gertler, Paul J., 2004. "Learning from exporting revisited in a less developed setting," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 397-416, December.
  17. Davide Castellani & Francesco Serti & Chiara Tomasi, 2008. "Firms in International Trade: Importers and Exporters Heterogeneity in the Italian Manufacturing Industry," LEM Papers Series 2008/04, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
  18. Joel Rodrigue & Hiroyuki Kasahara, 2004. "Does the Use of Imported Intermediates Increase Productivity? Plant-Level Evidence," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 511, Econometric Society.
  19. De Loecker, Jan, 2007. "Do exports generate higher productivity? Evidence from Slovenia," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 69-98, September.
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  22. Hiroyuki Kasahara & Beverly Lapham, 2008. "Productivity and the Decision to Import and Export: Theory and Evidence," CESifo Working Paper Series 2240, CESifo Group Munich.
  23. Delgado, Miguel A. & Farinas, Jose C. & Ruano, Sonia, 2002. "Firm productivity and export markets: a non-parametric approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 397-422, August.
  24. Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
  25. Isgut, Alberto & Fernandes, Ana, 2007. "Learning-by-Exporting Effects: Are They for Real?," MPRA Paper 3121, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  26. Taymaz, Erol & Yilmaz, Kamil, 2006. "Productivity and Trade Orientation: Turkish Manufacturing Industry Before and After the Customs Union," MPRA Paper 58843, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2007.
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