IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Employment, migration and livelihoods in the Hill Economy of Uttaranchal


  • Mamgain, Rajendra P.


Based on primary survey data, the study begins with a brief overview of the theoretical and empirical evidence on employment and livelihoods for rural households in Chapter I. A macro picture of the economy of Uttaranchal is presented in Chapters II and III based on the secondary data. The former analyses the composition and trends in the growth of state domestic product, land use, cropping pattern and industrial development and the latter (Chapter III) examines the growth in population, labour force and workforce in detail along with educational development in the state. It has been argued that despite the scarcity of productive assets like land in the mountain region in Uttaranchal women’s participation in the workforce is very high—a common feature which they do so to support the livelihoods of their households. Returns from such higher work participation, however, are abysmally low as reflected in low productivity levels. Chapter IV delineates the socio-economic characteristics of the sample households with a focus on access to livelihood assets. It is seen that most of the households are poor in terms of livelihood assets. The issue of the availability of employment, its characteristics and determinants are discussed in Chapter V. It shows how different features of households shape the quality of their workforce and determine ultimate performance in the labour market and how the rural households struggle to maintain and improve their employment and income. The issues of multiple employments and occupational mobility also form the core of the Chapter. It is also argued that unlike the classical as well as neo-classical framework of labour use and employee-employer relations, many households sell out their labour as well as use the hired labour. The themes, migration and remittances, are discussed in Chapter VI. It shows how out-migration is increasingly becoming an important channel for livelihood diversification among the rural households given the lack of remunerative employment opportunities within their villages and how it is augmenting households’ income. However, the propensity to migrate is determined by many factors, which are also analysed in the Chapter. Similarly, the Chapter analyses the determinants of propensity to remit. Chapter VII focuses on the issue of diversification in livelihoods, its determinants and the outcome of a livelihood strategy in terms of per capita income of household. The Chapter also discusses how switching over to more remunerative non-farm livelihoods leads to a reduction in the incidence of multiple employment. Chapter VIII argues that diversification of livelihoods based on traditional cereal-based agricultural into horticulture and vegetable production offers tremendous scope for enhancing employment and income of the households. Finally, the concluding Chapter apart from presenting summary of major conclusions delineates the policy implications for improving the livelihoods of rural households in Uttaranchal.

Suggested Citation

  • Mamgain, Rajendra P., 2004. "Employment, migration and livelihoods in the Hill Economy of Uttaranchal," MPRA Paper 32303, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:32303

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    2. Frank Ellis, 1998. "Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 1-38.
    3. World Bank, 2000. "Scientific and Technical Manpower Development in India," World Bank Other Operational Studies 14983, The World Bank.
    4. John Connell, 2000. "Migration and remittances in island microstates: a comparative perspective on the South Pacific and the Caribbean," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(1), pages 52-78, March.
    5. Ellis, Frank, 2000. "Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198296966.
    6. Lipton, Michael, 1980. "Migration from rural areas of poor countries: The impact on rural productivity and income distribution," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-24, January.
    7. David Mosse & Sanjeev Gupta & Mona Mehta & Vidya Shah & Julia fnms Rees & KRIBP Project Team, 2002. "Brokered livelihoods: Debt, Labour Migration and Development in Tribal Western India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(5), pages 59-88.
    8. Lewis, John P., 1976. "The new economics of growth: A strategy for India and the developing world : John W. Mellor a twentieth century fund study (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1976) pp. xv+335," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 390-393, December.
    9. Breman,Jan, 1996. "Footloose Labour," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521568241.
    10. Haggblade, Steven & Hazell, Peter, 1989. "Agricultural technology and farm-nonfarm growth linkages," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 3(4), pages 345-364, December.
    11. Hoddinott, John, 1994. "A Model of Migration and Remittances Applied to Western Kenya," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(3), pages 459-476, July.
    12. G. Regmi & C. Tisdell, 2002. "Remitting Behaviour of Nepalese Rural-to-Urban Migrants: Implications for Theory and Policy," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(3), pages 76-94.
    13. Breman,Jan, 1996. "Footloose Labour," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521560832.
    14. Grown, Caren & Elson, Diane & Cagatay, Nilufer, 2000. "Introduction," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1145-1156, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Awasthi, Ishwar & Nathan, Dev, 2016. "Poverty and Gender Analysis: Evidences from a Village-based Study of Uttarakhand Hill Region," Journal of Regional Development and Planning, JRDP, vol. 5(1), pages 87-100.

    More about this item


    Rural Employment; Rural Employment; Uttaranchal; Access to Livelihood Assets; Poverty; Agricultural Development; Industrial Development;

    JEL classification:

    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
    • J43 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Agricultural Labor Markets
    • M5 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Personnel Economics
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:32303. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.