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Conviction, Gender and Labour Market Status: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

  • Sciulli, Dario

This paper applies propensity score matching methods to National Child Development Study dataset to evaluate the effect of conviction on labour market status, paying specific attention to gender differences. Estimation results show that employment is strongly and negatively affected by conviction, while it increases self-employment, unemployment and inactivity. This possibly indicates employers’ stigmatization against convicted and discouragement effect after a conviction. However, conviction acts differently between males and females. It reduces employment probabilities by about 10% among males and by about 20% among females. More important, while males recover part of the reduced employment probability moving toward self-employment, conviction results in a strong marginalization on the labour market for females, as unemployment and, overall, inactivity strongly increase. This suggests a stronger discouragement effect for females and a different attitude toward self-employment. Social and economic policies aimed to fight social exclusion and to promote employment of convicted individuals should take into account also the great disadvantage of convicted females.

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File URL: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/25054/1/MPRA_paper_25054.pdf
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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 25054.

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Date of creation: 30 Jun 2010
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:25054
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  1. Rasmusen, Eric, 1996. "Stigma and Self-Fulfilling Expectations of Criminality," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 39(2), pages 519-43, October.
  2. Entorf, Horst, 2009. "Crime and the Labour Market: Evidence from a Survey of Inmates," IZA Discussion Papers 3976, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
  4. Waldfogel, Joel, 1994. "Does conviction have a persistent effect on income and employment?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 103-119, March.
  5. Dan A. Black & Jeffrey Smith, 2003. "How Robust is the Evidence on the Effects of College Quality? Evidence From Matching," University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity Working Papers 20033, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity.
  6. Meyers, Samuel L, Jr, 1983. "Estimating the Economic Model of Crime: Employment versus Punishment Effects," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 98(1), pages 157-66, February.
  7. Sciulli Dario, 2010. "Conviction, Partial Adverse Selection and Labor Market Discrimination," Review of Law & Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(2), pages 275-302, December.
  8. Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity Score-Matching Methods For Nonexperimental Causal Studies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 151-161, February.
  9. Cho, Rosa & LaLonde, Robert J., 2005. "The Impact of Incarceration in State Prison on the Employment Prospects of Women," IZA Discussion Papers 1792, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Marco Caliendo & Sabine Kopeinig, 2005. "Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 485, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  11. Lott, John Jr., 1990. "The effect of conviction on the legitimate income of criminals," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 381-385, December.
  12. Daniel Nagin & Joel Waldfogel, 1993. "The Effect of Convicton on Income Through the Life Cycle," NBER Working Papers 4551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Freeman, Richard B., 1999. "The economics of crime," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 52, pages 3529-3571 Elsevier.
  14. A. Smith, Jeffrey & E. Todd, Petra, 2005. "Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 305-353.
  15. Grogger, Jeffrey, 1995. "The Effect of Arrests on the Employment and Earnings of Young Men," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(1), pages 51-71, February.
  16. Holzer, Harry J & Raphael, Steven & Stoll, Michael A, 2006. "Perceived Criminality, Criminal Background Checks, and the Racial Hiring Practices of Employers," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 49(2), pages 451-80, October.
  17. Holzer, Harry J., 2007. "Collateral Costs: The Effects of Incarceration on the Employment and Earnings of Young Workers," IZA Discussion Papers 3118, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Nagin, Daniel & Waldfogel, Joel, 1995. "The effects of criminality and conviction on the labor market status of young British offenders," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 109-126, January.
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