IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Effects of For-Profit College Training on Earnings


  • Chung, Anna


In this paper, I obtain the estimates of the effects of for-profit training and credentials on students' annualized earnings. I differentiate for-profit students by the program level and account for students' self-selection into for-profit sector. I formulate the evaluation as the series progressing in the assumption on the source of selection bias: a basic specification of the Mincer earnings model is followed up by the rich-covariate model of selection on observables and finally by the multinomial model of selection into for-profit postsecondary training. To identify the selection into for-profit training, I use two exclusion restrictions: state-specific community college tuition, and county-specific share of Title-IV eligible for-profit schools. I find that selection into employment is not a pressing issue with for-profit college trained workers. Also, after controlling for self-selection into for-profit sector I find that on average a receipt of a for-profit certificate is associated with an increase in individual annualized earnings. However, this finding varies by gender, so I investigate various explanations for this gender divide. I observe that the differences in earnings effects between men and women are not systematically related to occupational differences by gender. Also, there may be some merit to the claim that the lack of the significant effects of for-profit Associate degrees for males are due to the unrelated vocational training.

Suggested Citation

  • Chung, Anna, 2008. "The Effects of For-Profit College Training on Earnings," MPRA Paper 18972, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised May 2009.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:18972

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dubin, Jeffrey A & McFadden, Daniel L, 1984. "An Econometric Analysis of Residential Electric Appliance Holdings and Consumption," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 345-362, March.
    2. Richard Blundell & Lorraine Dearden & Barbara Sianesi, 2003. "Evaluating the impact of education on earnings in the UK: Models, methods and results from the NCDS," IFS Working Papers W03/20, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    3. Ana M. Ferrer & W. Craig Riddell, 2002. "The role of credentials in the Canadian labour market," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 35(4), pages 879-905, November.
    4. Chung, Anna, 2008. "The Choice of For-Profit College," MPRA Paper 18971, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Nov 2009.
    5. Heckman, James J. & Lochner, Lance J. & Todd, Petra E., 2006. "Earnings Functions, Rates of Return and Treatment Effects: The Mincer Equation and Beyond," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
    6. Grubb, W. Norton, 1992. "Postsecondary vocational education and the sub-baccalaureate labor market: New evidence on economic returns," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 225-248, September.
    7. De Hoyos, R.E., 2006. "Structural Modelling of Female Labour Participation and Occupation Decisions," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0611, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    8. Kane, Thomas J & Rouse, Cecilia Elena, 1995. "Labor-Market Returns to Two- and Four-Year College," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 600-614, June.
    9. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-512, March.
    10. Richard Blundell & Lorraine Dearden & Barbara Sianesi, 2005. "Evaluating the effect of education on earnings: models, methods and results from the National Child Development Survey," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 168(3), pages 473-512.
    11. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    12. Gordon B. Dahl, 2002. "Mobility and the Return to Education: Testing a Roy Model with Multiple Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(6), pages 2367-2420, November.
    13. Jaeger, David A & Page, Marianne E, 1996. "Degrees Matter: New Evidence on Sheepskin Effects in the Returns to Education," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(4), pages 733-740, November.
    14. Dave E. Marcotte, 2010. "The Earnings Effect Of Education At Community Colleges," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 28(1), pages 36-51, January.
    15. Chung, Anna, 2008. "For-Profit Student Heterogeneity," MPRA Paper 18967, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Nov 2009.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Lang, Kevin & Weinstein, Russell, 2013. "The wage effects of not-for-profit and for-profit certifications: Better data, somewhat different results," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 230-243.
    2. Cellini, Stephanie Riegg, 2012. "For-Profit Higher Education: An Assessment of Costs and Benefits," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 65(1), pages 153-179, March.
    3. Jacqmin, Julien, 2014. "The Emergence of For-Profit Higher Education Institutions," MPRA Paper 59299, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    for-profit; private; workforce; training; education; vocational; wages;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • H44 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods - - - Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:18972. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.