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Habilidades No Cognitivas y Brecha de Género Salarial en el Perú

  • Pablo Lavado


    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Luciana Velarde


    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Gustavo Yamada


    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

En los últimos años, la literatura ha analizado la relación entre las habilidades cognitivas y no cognitivas y los resultados del mercado laboral. Mas aún, se ha estudiado la correlación entre diferencias en estas habilidades y diferencias en salarios entre hombres y mujeres. No obstante, la mayoría de los estudios en torno al tema se ha enfocado en países desarrollados. El principal objetivo de este estudio es analizar el rol de las habilidades cognitivas y no cognitivas en la brecha salarial de género en el Perú. Para ello, proponemos utilizar información longitudinal de medidas de habilidad para estimar componentes inobservables (latentes) de ambas habilidades y analizar el rol de dichos componentes en el salario. Los resultados indican que existe una brecha salarial de género signicativa en el Perú y que la misma puede ser explicada por diferencias en el retorno de habilidades cognitivas latentes y por diferencias en la dotación de habilidades no cognitivas latentes. Luego de estimar un modelo conjunto de educación, empleo, ocupación y salarios, se observa que aún cuando las habilidades latentes explican la brecha de salarios, las mismas son más importantes para explicar la diferencia en la decisión de ocupación tomada entre hombres y mujeres. Recently there has been growing interest in the relationship between cognitive and non cognitive abilities and labor market outcomes. A large literature provides evidence on the positive connection between gaps in abilities and gaps in wages between men and women. However, attention is focused on developed countries. The main objective of this paper is to identify latent abilities and explore their role in the gender wage gap in Peru. The main identication strategy relies on exploiting panel data information on test scores and arguing that time dependence across measures is due to latent abilities. Results show a signicant gender wage gap in Peru and that even though when accounting for measured abilities dierences in non cognitive abilities seem irrelevant, when accounting for diferences in actual latent ability non cognitive abilities account for important inter-gender dierences in the endowment and returns of abilities. Moreover, inter-gender dierences in latent abilities play an important role not only in wage proles, but in schooling, employment and occupation decisions.

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Paper provided by Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico in its series Working Papers with number 13-16.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2013
Date of revision: Dec 2013
Handle: RePEc:pai:wpaper:13-16
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  1. David Bravo Urrutia & Claudia Sanhueza & sergio Urzúa, 2007. "Ability, Schooling Choices And Gender Labor Market Discrimination: Evidence For Chile," Working Papers wp265, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
  2. Joseph A Ritter & Lowell J Taylor, 2011. "Racial Disparity in Unemployment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(1), pages 30-42, February.
  3. Wayne A. Grove & Andrew Hussey & Michael Jetter, 2011. "The Gender Pay Gap Beyond Human Capital: Heterogeneity in Noncognitive Skills and in Labor Market Tastes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 46(4), pages 827-874.
  4. Karsten Hansen & James J. Heckman & Kathleen J. Mullen, 2003. "The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores," NBER Working Papers 9881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Murnane, Richard J & Willett, John B & Levy, Frank, 1995. "The Growing Importance of Cognitive Skills in Wage Determination," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 77(2), pages 251-66, May.
  6. Galarza, Francisco B. & Yamada, Gustavo, 2014. "Labor Market Discrimination in Lima, Peru: Evidence from a Field Experiment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 83-94.
  7. Cobb-Clark, Deborah A. & Tan, Michelle, 2009. "Noncognitive Skills, Occupational Attainment, and Relative Wages," IZA Discussion Papers 4289, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. James Heckman & Flavio Cunha, 2007. "The Technology of Skill Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 31-47, May.
  9. Nicole M. Fortin, 2008. "The Gender Wage Gap among Young Adults in the United States: The Importance of Money versus People," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
  10. Helmers, Christian & Patnam, Manasa, 2011. "The formation and evolution of childhood skill acquisition: Evidence from India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 252-266, July.
  11. Cunha, Flavio & Heckman, James J. & Lochner, Lance, 2006. "Interpreting the Evidence on Life Cycle Skill Formation," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
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