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Demographic change, pension reform and redistribution in Spain

  • Alfonso R Sánchez-Martín


    (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)

  • Virginia Sánchez Marcos


    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad de Cantabria)

Recent demographic changes have spurred pension reforms aimed at restoring the financial sustainability of PAYG systems. In Spain, the most significant reforms were undertaken in 1997 and in 2002, entailing an increase in the length of the averaging period in the pension formula, an increase in the penalties for early retirement and for retirement with short contributive records, a bonus for retirement after the age of 65, and a change in the eligibility conditions. In this paper we use an Applied General Equilibrium model populated by two-earners households to evaluate the redistributive impact of the pension system and the financial and welfare consequences of these reforms on households that differ in their education, region of residence and year of birth. The initial redistribution is assessed by comparing the internal rate of return provided to different households. We find that they vary considerable depending on education and cohort. Regarding the reforms, we find an increase in the implicit debt of the pension system after the reforms, and important changes in welfare. Households up to secondary education born between 1935 and 1975 are predicted to benefit from the reform, while the welfare of younger cohorts will be hit by higher taxes and unfavorable macroeconomic changes.

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Paper provided by Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number 08.04.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pab:wpaper:08.04
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  1. Mark Huggett & Gustavo Ventura, 1999. "On the Distributional Effects of Social Security Reform," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 2(3), pages 498-531, July.
  2. Michele Boldrin & Sergi Jiménez-Martín & Franco Peracchi, 2004. "Micro-Modeling of Retirement Behavior in Spain," NBER Chapters, in: Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Micro-Estimation, pages 499-578 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Sánchez Martín, Alfonso R., 2010. "Endogenous retirement and public pension system reform in Spain," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 336-349, January.
  4. Luis A. Puch & Omar Licandro, 1997. "Are there any special features in the Spanish business cycle?," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 21(2), pages 361-394, May.
  5. Imrohoroglu, Ayse & Imrohoroglu, Selahattin & Joines, Douglas H, 1995. "A Life Cycle Analysis of Social Security," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 83-114, June.
  6. Juan F. Jimeno & Omar Licandro, 1999. "La tasa interna de rentabilidad y el equilibrio financiero del sistema español de pensiones de jubilación," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 23(1), pages 129-143, January.
  7. Sergi Jiménez-Martín & Alfonso R. Sánchez, 2003. "An evaluation of the life-cycle effects of minimum pensions on retirement behavior," Economics Working Papers 715, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jun 2006.
  8. Juan Carlos Conesa & Carlos Garriga, 2001. "Sistema Fiscal y Reforma de la Seguridad Social," Working Papers in Economics 67, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
  9. Juan A. Rojas, . "Life-cycle Earnings Cohort Size Effects and Social Security. A Quantitative Exploration," Studies on the Spanish Economy 88, FEDEA.
  10. Mariacristina De Nardi & Selahattin Imrohoroglu & Thomas J. Sargent, 1998. "Projected U.S. demographics and social security," Working Paper Series WP-98-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  11. Hurd, Michael D, 1989. "Mortality Risk and Bequests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(4), pages 779-813, July.
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