IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bge/wpaper/108.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

An evaluation of the life-cycle effects of minimum pensions on retirement behavior

Author

Listed:
  • Sergi Jiménez-Martín
  • Alfonso R. Sánchez-Martin

Abstract

In this paper we explore the distortions that minimum pensions generate on individual decisions, paying special attention to their impact on retirement behavior. This is done with the help of a stylized life-cycle model, which provides a very convenient analytical characterization of the optimality conditions, and a very easy qualitative exploration of the impact of pension rules on optimal behavior. In this context we show that a standard life cycle model, that does not consider minimum pensions, is unable to fit the data. This anomaly is resolved once the mechanism of the minimum pension is taken into account. We follow two steps in order to quantitatively assess the contribution of minimum pensions to early retirement patterns. We first recovered the preference parameters using the model as the data generating process in a structural econometric estimation. We then simulated the change in the aggregate retirement distribution induced by the minimum pension scheme. We found that 3 out of 4 workers leave the labor force before 65 under the minimum pension scheme, while this ratio is 3 in 5 without it. This result suggests that minimum pensions should be carefully considered in any attempt to reform the Spanish pension system. The same conclusion could be extended to other countries with similar systems.

Suggested Citation

  • Sergi Jiménez-Martín & Alfonso R. Sánchez-Martin, 2003. "An evaluation of the life-cycle effects of minimum pensions on retirement behavior," Working Papers 108, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:bge:wpaper:108
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.barcelonagse.eu/sites/default/files/working_paper_pdfs/108.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Michele Boldrin & Sergi Jimenez-Martin, 2007. "Evaluating Spanish Pension Expenditure under Alternative Reform Scenarios," NBER Chapters,in: Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Fiscal Implications of Reform, pages 351-412 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Eric French, 2005. "The Effects of Health, Wealth, and Wages on Labour Supply and Retirement Behaviour," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(2), pages 395-427.
    3. Kahn, James A., 1988. "Social security, liquidity, and early retirement," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 97-117, February.
    4. Turalay Kenc & William Perraudin, 1996. "Pension Systems in Europe: A General Equilibrium Study," Archive Working Papers 018, Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics.
    5. Gustman, Alan L & Steinmeier, Thomas L, 1986. "A Structural Retirement Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 555-584, May.
    6. Samwick, Andrew A., 1998. "New evidence on pensions, social security, and the timing of retirement," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 207-236, November.
    7. John Rust & Christopher Phelan, 1997. "How Social Security and Medicare Affect Retirement Behavior in a World of Incomplete Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(4), pages 781-832, July.
    8. Hurd, Michael D, 1989. "Mortality Risk and Bequests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(4), pages 779-813, July.
    9. Eric M. Engen & William G. Gale, 1997. "Effects of Social Security reform on private and national saving," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, vol. 41(Jun), pages 103-142.
    10. Robin L. Lumsdaine & James H. Stock & David A. Wise, 1992. "Three Models of Retirement: Computational Complexity versus Predictive Validity," NBER Chapters,in: Topics in the Economics of Aging, pages 21-60 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Eric French & John Bailey Jones, 2011. "The Effects of Health Insurance and Self‐Insurance on Retirement Behavior," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(3), pages 693-732, May.
    12. Turalay Kenc & William Perraudin, 1997. "European pension systems: a simulation analysis," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 18(3), pages 249-277, August.
    13. Michele Boldrin & Sergi Jimenez-Martin & Franco Peracchi, 1999. "Social Security and Retirement in Spain," NBER Chapters,in: Social Security and Retirement around the World, pages 305-353 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Leung, Siu Fai, 1994. "Uncertain Lifetime, the Theory of the Consumer, and the Life Cycle Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(5), pages 1233-1239, September.
    15. Sheshinski, Eytan, 1978. "A model of social security and retirement decisions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 337-360, December.
    16. Fabel, Oliver, 1994. "Social security, optimal retirement, and savings," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 783-802, December.
    17. Smetters, Kent, 2002. "Controlling the cost of minimum benefit guarantees in public pension conversions," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(01), pages 9-33, March.
    18. Mariacristina De Nardi & Selahattin Imrohoroglu & Thomas J. Sargent, 1999. "Projected U.S. Demographics and Social Security," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 2(3), pages 575-615, July.
    19. Vincent P. Crawford & David M. Lilien, 1981. "Social Security and the Retirement Decision," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 96(3), pages 505-529.
    20. Gustman, Alan L. & Steinmeier, Thomas L., 2005. "The social security early entitlement age in a structural model of retirement and wealth," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2-3), pages 441-463, February.
    21. Sánchez Martín, Alfonso R., 2010. "Endogenous retirement and public pension system reform in Spain," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 336-349, January.
    22. Broer, D. Peter & Lassila, Jukka, . "Pension Policies and Public Debt in Dynamic CGE Models," ETLA A, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, number 23.
    23. Courtney Coile & Jonathan Gruber, 2000. "Social Security and Retirement," NBER Working Papers 7830, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Boldrin Michele & Jiménez-Martín Sergi & Peracchi Franco, 2001. "Sistema de pensiones y mercado de trabajo en España," Books, Fundacion BBVA / BBVA Foundation, edition 1, number 201120.
    25. Siu Fai Leung, 2000. "Why Do Some Households Save So Little? A Rational Explanation," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 3(4), pages 771-800, October.
    26. Mark Huggett & Gustavo Ventura, 1999. "On the Distributional Effects of Social Security Reform," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 2(3), pages 498-531, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Alvaro Forteza & Ianina Rossi, 2010. "¿Qué protección social ofrecería un pilar de “cuentas nocionales” en Uruguay?," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 0210, Department of Economics - dECON.
    2. J. Ignacio Conde-Ruiz & Clara I. González, 2016. "From Bismarck to Beveridge: the other pension reform in Spain," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 7(4), pages 461-490, November.
    3. Glomm, Gerhard & Jung, Juergen & Tran, Chung, 2009. "Macroeconomic implications of early retirement in the public sector: The case of Brazil," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 777-797, April.
    4. Miguel Sánchez Romero & Concepció Patxot & Elisenda Renteria & Guadalupe Souto, 2010. "From transfers to capital: analyzing the Spanish demand for wealth using NTA," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2010-029, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    5. repec:eee:hapoch:v1_457 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. García-Pérez, J. Ignacio & Jiménez-Martín, Sergi & Sánchez-Martín, Alfonso R., 2013. "Retirement incentives, individual heterogeneity and labor transitions of employed and unemployed workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 106-120.
    7. Alvaro Forteza & Irene Mussio, 2012. "Assessing Redistribution in the Uruguayan Social Security System," Journal of Income Distribution, Journal of Income Distribution, vol. 21(1), pages 65-87, March.
    8. Sánchez Martín, Alfonso R., 2010. "Endogenous retirement and public pension system reform in Spain," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 336-349, January.
    9. Clement Joubert, 2010. "Dynamic labor supply and saving incentives in privatized pension systems: evidence from Chile," 2010 Meeting Papers 291, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    10. Alfonso SANCHEZ-MARTIN & Virginia SANCHEZ-MARCOS, "undated". "Demographic Change, Pension Reform and Redistribution in Spain," EcoMod2008 23800123, EcoMod.
    11. Julian Diaz Saavedra, 2013. "Age-dependent Taxation, Retirement Behavior, and Work Hours Over the Life Cycle," ThE Papers 13/09, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..
    12. Javier Diaz-Gimenez & Julian Diaz-Saavedra, 2009. "Delaying Retirement in Spain," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 12(1), pages 147-167, January.
    13. Almudena Sevilla-Sanz & Maria Jose Luengo-Prado, 2010. "Consumption, Retirement and Life-cycle Prices: Evidence From Spain," Economics Series Working Papers 498, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    14. Jose Ignacio García Pérez & Alfonso R. Sánchez Martín, 2010. "Social Security and the job search behavior of workers approaching retirement," Working Papers 2010-26, FEDEA.
    15. José Ignacio García & Alfonso R. Sánchez Martín, 2008. "Social security and the search behaviour of workers approaching retirement," Economic Working Papers at Centro de Estudios Andaluces E2008/10, Centro de Estudios Andaluces.
    16. J. García-Pérez & Alfonso Sánchez-Martín, 2015. "Fostering job search among older workers: the case for pension reform," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 4(1), pages 1-34, December.
    17. Jochem de Bresser & Raquel Fonseca & Pierre-Carl Michaud, 2016. "Retirement Behavior in the U.S. and Europe," Cahiers de recherche 1609, Chaire de recherche Industrielle Alliance sur les enjeux économiques des changements démographiques.
    18. Clara Isabel González & J. Ignacio Conde-Ruiz & Michele Boldrin, 2008. "Immigration and Social Security in Spain," Working Papers 2008-36, FEDEA.
    19. Alvaro Forteza, 2011. "Assessing Redistribution within Social Insurance Systems.The cases of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 1311, Department of Economics - dECON.
    20. Miguel Sánchez-Romero & Concepció Patxot & Elisenda Rentería & Guadalupe Souto, 2013. "On the effects of public and private transfers on capital accumulation: some lessons from the NTA aggregates," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(4), pages 1409-1430, October.
    21. Petra Todd & Viviana Vélez-Grajales, 2008. "How Pension Rules Affect Work and Contribution Patterns: A Behavioral Model of the Chilean Privatized Pension System," Working Papers wp193, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
    22. Clement Joubert, 2011. "Pension design with a large informal labor market: evidence from Chile," 2011 Meeting Papers 1136, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    23. Alvaro Forteza & Graciela Sanromán, 2011. "Estimación de un modelo estructural para las decisiones de retiro en Uruguay," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 2411, Department of Economics - dECON.
    24. Robalino, David A. & Zylberstajn, Eduardo & Zylberstajn, Helio & Afonso, Luis Eduardo, 2008. "An ex-ante evaluation of the impact of social insurance policies on labor supply in Brazil : the case for explicit over implicit redistribution," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 90342, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Retirement; life cycle model; minimum pension; structural estimation;

    JEL classification:

    • C91 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
    • J26 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Retirement; Retirement Policies
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bge:wpaper:108. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Bruno Guallar). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/bargses.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.