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Demographic Change, Pension Reform and Redistribution in Spain

  • Alfonso Sánchez
  • Virginia Sánchez Marcos

Recent demographic changes have spurred pension reforms aimed at restoring the financial sustainability of PAYG systems. In Spain, the most significant reforms were undertaken in 1997 and in2002, entailing an increase in the length of the averaging period in the pension formula, an increase in the penalties for early retirement and for retirement with short contributive records, a bonus for retirement after the age of 65,and a change in the eligibility conditions. In this paper we use an Applied General Equilibrium model populated by two-earners house holds to evaluate the redistributive impact of the pension system and the financial and welfare consequences of these reforms on households that differ in their education, region of residence and year of birth. The initial redistribution is assessed by comparing the internal rate of return provided to different households. We find that they vary considerable depending on education and cohort. Regarding the reforms, we find an increase in the implicit debt of the pension system after the reforms, and important changes in welfare. Households up to secondary education born between 1935 and 1975 are predicted to benefit from the reform, while the welfare of younger cohorts will be hit by higher taxes and unfavourable macroeconomic changes.

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Paper provided by FEDEA in its series Working Papers with number 2008-14.

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Date of creation: Apr 2008
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Handle: RePEc:fda:fdaddt:2008-14
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  1. Sánchez Martín, Alfonso R., 2010. "Endogenous retirement and public pension system reform in Spain," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 336-349, January.
  2. Mariacristina De Nardi & Selahattin Imrohoroglu & Thomas J. Sargent, 1999. "Projected U.S. Demographics and Social Security," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 2(3), pages 575-615, July.
  3. Hurd, Michael D, 1989. "Mortality Risk and Bequests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(4), pages 779-813, July.
  4. Hugett, M. & Ventura, G., 1997. "On the Distributional Effects of Social Security Reform," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers 9710, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
  5. : Michele Boldrin & : Sergi Jiménez-Martín & : Franco Peracchi, . "Micro-Modelling Of Retirement Behavior In Spain," Working Papers 14-02 Classification-JEL , Instituto de Estudios Fiscales.
  6. Juan Carlos Conesa & Carlos Garriga, 2001. "Sistema Fiscal y Reforma de la Seguridad Social," Working Papers in Economics 67, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
  7. Imrohoroglu, Ayse & Imrohoroglu, Selahattin & Joines, Douglas H, 1995. "A Life Cycle Analysis of Social Security," Economic Theory, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 83-114, June.
  8. Sergi Jiménez-Mart�n & Alfonso R. Sánchez Mart�n, 2007. "An evaluation of the life cycle effects of minimum pensions on retirement behavior," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(5), pages 923-950.
  9. Luis A. Puch & Omar Licandro, 1997. "Are there any special features in the Spanish business cycle?," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 21(2), pages 361-394, May.
  10. Juan F. Jimeno & Omar Licandro, 1999. "La tasa interna de rentabilidad y el equilibrio financiero del sistema español de pensiones de jubilación," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 23(1), pages 129-143, January.
  11. Juan A. Rojas, . "Life-cycle Earnings Cohort Size Effects and Social Security. A Quantitative Exploration," Studies on the Spanish Economy 88, FEDEA.
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